Using a minimum of seven (7) credible sources, write a research paper about a topic related to your major or intended career, which follows the problem solution strategy. The paper must be original to this course–no recycling, please!


Length: The research paper should be 2000 – 2500 words in length. The page count does not include the Works Cited, Reference, or Bibliography page, or the title page or abstract if required by your documentation style. The page count refers only to the text of the paper itself. Submitting a paper that is doesn’t fall within the word count range is not a good idea. Papers that are too long are as problematic as those that are too short. Part of effective writing is being able to complete the assignment within the designated limits set.

Sources:  Your final source page should contain at least seven (7) sources,


2.Also compose an abstract which summarizes your  topic problem, highlights key research sources, and offers a solution. The abstract should be one page in length. A good spot to see a sample abstract is at the Purdue OWL site, looking at the citation style you are using.


  1. 3.Please also create a Bibliography 


4.This is the outline i have so far. Please use it to write the paper.


Racism in Healthcare

Student’s Name






Racism in Healthcare


Definition of racism in healthcare as where the system is beset with inequalities that disproportionately impacts people of color and other marginalized groups.

The gaps in healthcare are attributed to inequalities that affect health insurance coverage. Moreover, it results in poorer health outcomes and uneven access to services.

Racism patterns draws attention to long-standing health inequalities.

In healthcare, implicit bias is what affects the way they treat patients as racism is deeply ingrained in the political, social, and economic structures of society.

Brief History

  • A renewed focus on racism in healthcare has been given as COVID-19 is hitting on Black people and other ethnic minorities the hardest (Kretchmer, 2020).
  • The 19th century saw Black people as ‘racially different’; thus, was a justification of discrimination.
  • It was in the 20th century that medical racism was more systemic.

Negative Consequences of Racism

  • For people of color, it reduces their standards of care 
  • It leads to patients and healthcare workers higher risks of illness
  • More illness, worse outcomes, and premature death (National Center for Health Statistics (US), 2016).
  • An example is the recent increase in COVID-19 that showed that more black people are dying compared to their white counterparts (Gross et al., 2020).

Impacts of Racism on Health

  • It has a profound impact on an individual’s physical and mental health
  • Life expectancy is lowered (Biggers, 2020)
  • Increases high blood pressure
  • Influenza vaccination rate is lowered
  • Doctors disbelieve, neglect, or actively discriminate against their patients (Biggers, 2020)

Fighting Racism

  • By understanding, recognizing and naming these attitudes and actions.
  • Be open to identify and control individual implicit biases.
  • Safely manage overt bigotry, learn from it and then educate others.
  • Racism needs to be part of medical education and institutional policy.
  • Healthcare professionals need to practice and model respect, peace, tolerance, and open-mindedness for each other.


Racism will end the day each individual will take on a shared responsibility. 

The inequality present in the healthcare system today is affecting patient outcomes and health.

The culture of the healthcare industry can be changed gradually.



Biggers, A. (2020 Sept). Racism in healthcare: What you need to know.

Gross, C. P., Essien, U. R., Pasha, S., Gross, J. R., Wang, S. Y., & Nunez-Smith, M. (2020). 

Racial and ethnic disparities in population-level Covid-19 mortality. Journal of general 

internal medicine, 35(10), 3097-3099.

Kretchmer, H. (2020 July). A brief history of racism in healthcare. World Economic Forum.

National Center for Health Statistics (US). (2016 May) Health, United States, 2015: With special 

feature on racial and ethnic health disparities. National Center for Health Statistics (US). 

Report No.: 2016-1232.

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In week 8, you will be submitting your research paper. In this forum, create and post your outline for that paper, making sure that you use complete sentences for all elements of the outline. Using complete sentences gives your outline focus.  Remember that, if you have one sub-heading, you should have at least one more.  Your outline should reflect the way you get the reader into the paper (introduction) and the way you help the reader exit (conclusion). Body paragraphs should provide support for your thesis statement.  Do not make elements of your outline large blocks of text; usually a sentence or two will suffice for each element.

Here are the items to include in your post:

  1. Thesis statement (in bold font) that is a complete sentence (not a question).
  2. Outline with all elements being complete sentences.

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