The King’s theory of Goal Attainment analyzes the output of nurses in achieving health goals and promoting patient outcome. In the given case, the Goal Attainment theory would play a big role in planning, implementing and evaluating the care of the patient. The goal attainment theory claims that an effective communication between nurses and patients helps in attaining health care goals (Basavanthappa, 2007, p. 165).
The theory promotes good nurse-patient interpersonal relationship, which will be used in planning visits to monitor blood sugar levels, diet advises, exercise courses and mode of medication. The theory ensures timely consultation between the two parties making it easier for the implementation of the planned activities.
After planning for the patient’s care activities implementation follows. The theory ensures effective communication between the nurse and the patient promoting togetherness that helps in timely implementation of the proposed plan.
The evaluation process involves identifying the patient’s outcomes and analyzing them to determine whether there is any observable change. The theory introduces a framework that helps in evaluating the outcome of a health care plan. The concept of personal system helps in understanding patient’s nature making it easier for the nurse to self-evaluate the patient.
The Levine’s Four Conservation Principles theory is the most appropriate for Ann Ching’s case. Levine’s theory claims that different individuals adapts differently to internal and external environments. Some individual might have similar adaptive features but organismic responses are unique (Levine, 2009). From Levine’s theoretical perspective, Ching suffered from two main problems. Firstly, the organ transplant made Ching develop a poor interaction with the environment that resulted into poor adaptation to the environment. There was lack of balance between her normal body organs and the new liver. Secondly, Ching’s lifestyle changed because she used to live a healthy lifestyle, but suddenly started surviving on drugs. As a mother of two and an employee, she could not bear sitting down and taking drugs while her family had no one to take care of since the husband was busy developing new software. Ching undergoes a stressing life. Stress is one of the aspects of the Levine’s theory.
The most appropriate nursing intervention for Ching’s case would be constant therapy and counseling sessions in order to make her accept the new life. In addition, Ching need to be assigned a home-care practitioner to constantly check her status, encourage her to take medication and eat a healthy diet in order to ensure quick adaptation of the new liver to her body system. It is expected that Ching’s body will effectively adapt to the new environment and go back to her normal life.
The positivist paradigm observes the world as a base for unchanging universal laws and assumes that everything occurring in nature is explained through the knowledge of universal laws. People need to observe and understand the situations surrounding them in order to understand the universal law and promote positivist. The knowledge of positivist comes from scientific research where researchers use quantitative methodology approach. It results to a scientific, logical approach to research. Positivist also forms the source of all authoritative knowledge. In the field of nursing and medicine, positivist’s knowledge assumes that all health care issues in a society would be explained in a theoretical approach. In addition, the knowledge of positivist is acquired from philosophers who derive logical and mathematical treatments and reports that explain the nature of the universal law and its application to the field of nursing research.
Basavanthappa, B. T. (2007). Nursing theories. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers.
Levine, M. E. (2009). Myra Levine’s Conservation Theory. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from