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Week 1 Discussion 2: Growth and Development Assessment, Biopsychosocial Profile and Screening

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  4. Week 1: Assessment of Growth and Development, Biopsychosocial Profile, and Screening
  5. Week 1 Discussion 2: Growth and Development Assessment, Biopsychosocial Profile and Screening

Completion requirements

Done: Make forum posts: 1

Value: 100 points

Due: Create your initial post by Day 4 and reply to at least two of your peers by Day 7.

Grading Category: Discussions

Note: In this type of discussion, you will not see the responses of your classmates until after you have posted your own response to the following prompt.

Initial Post

Look at the Chart of Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages in Table 34-16 on page 1073 in the Kaplan and Sadock, Synopsis of Psychiatry (2021) textbook. Pick a psychosocial stage, discuss the associated virtue, and the positive and negative forerunners of identity. Explain the purpose of incorporating the evaluation of developmental vulnerabilities within your holistic, psychosocial assessment and treatment plan documentation.


Reply to at least two of your peers. Explain how you can use what you have learned from this post in your own practice. Upload a nursing research article to support your statements in your response.

Use APA formatting as stated in the syllabus and grading rubric.

Please refer to the Grading Rubric for details on how this activity will be graded.

The described expectations meet the passing level of 80%. You are directed to review the Discussion Grading Rubric for criteria which exceed expectations.  


Re: Week 1 Discussion 2: Growth and Development Assessment, Biopsychosocial Profile and Screening

by Cindy Faraguna – Monday, 28 August 2023, 7:59 PM

Initiative vs. Guilt

Erik Erikson formulated eight stages of the life cycle that surround the concept of identity (Boland et al., 2021). Erikson would observe and notice how childhood play can significantly impact character formation (Boland et al., 2021). Initiative versus guilt is stage 3 of Erik Erikson’s stages of the life cycle. This developmental stage focuses on the age group between 3 to 5 years old. I feel this stage is a critical phase of development based on the multiple changes cognitively, physically, and mentally, they are becoming more aware of themselves and others, and learning independence. Cognitive competencies progress during early childhood such as problem-solving, learning about questioning, understanding spatial relationships, imitation, number sense, and symbolic play (Gizzonio et al., 2021). In addition to the new skills the child develops during stage 3, the child will also start to become more assertive and initiate direct play and social interactions (Gizzonio et al., 2021). As the developmental stage progresses, the child builds a foundation of morality (Boland et al., 2021).The associated virtue for this stage is purpose. Support from their caregivers is important for the child to continue their path of purpose. When virtue is adopted, it can help resolve current decisions or conflicts the child encounters (Orenstein & Lewis, 2022). It is imperative for the caregiver to encourage, support, and guide the child’s own initiatives and interests (Orenstein & Lewis, 2022). When recognizing and supporting the child’s initiative this will increase his/her purpose. If the child expands on the initiative, he/she will be more optimistic about striving towards their goals and find a more meaningful purpose. On the opposing side, when the child is not supported, the results are more likely to be a negative outcome. Dysfunction such as adverse childhood experiences from birth to 17 years of age was associated with disruptions in children’s transition to adulthood (Graf et al., 2021). Problems can start to arise if there is a conflict between initiative and guilt. The child may revert to self-harm if he/she is experiencing guilt. It is important to manage the guilt the child is experiencing as a learning experience and time of growth. The guidance provided when the child encounters feelings of guilt can minimize the child’s belief he/she is “bad” and rather learn from the experience and improve on morality and purpose. Conflict during this stage may result in phobias, inhibition, or conversion disorders (Boland et al., 2021). It is important to keep a healthy balance between initiative and guilt (Sutton, 2023). The positive and negative forerunners of identity are anticipation of roles versus role inhibition for this stage (Boland et al., 2021). The purpose of incorporating the evaluation of developmental vulnerabilities is to assess for risk of long-term adverse outcomes. Research shows that children who are developmentally vulnerable have an increased risk of a difficult start to school, and ongoing educational challenges which can lead to negative long-term health outcomes (Woolfenden et al., 2014). It is important for the provider to have a strong understanding of identity development. For example, in a patient with a stronger sense of ego identity, his/her interaction with the outer and inner world is of rejecting conflicting evaluations of self; therefore, resulting in a decreased level of anxiety (Orenstein & Lewis, 2022). Understanding identity development will guide the mental health provider to effectively address the patient and modify the treatment plan to best fit the patient’s needs.ReferencesBoland, R., Verduin, M., & Ruiz, P. (2021). Kaplan and Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (12th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.Gizzonio, V., Bazzini, M. C., Marsella, C., Papangelo, P., Rizzolatti, G., & Fabbri‐Destro, M. (2021). Supporting preschoolers’ cognitive development: Short‐ and mid‐term effects of fluid reasoning, visuospatial, and motor training. Child Development, 93(1), 134–149. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13642Graf, G.H.-J., Biroli, P. and Belsky, D.W. (2021) ‘Critical periods in child development and the transition to adulthood’, JAMA Network Open, 4(1). doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.33359.

Orenstein, G., & Lewis, L. (2022, November 7). Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556096/

Sutton, J. (2023, March 9). Erik Erikson’s stages of Psychosocial Development explained. PositivePsychology.com. https://positivepsychology.com/erikson-stages/#:~:text=Stage%203%3A%20Initiative%20Versus%20Guilt,-Erikson’s%20third%20stage&text=At%20this%20point%20in%20our,direct%20play%20and%20social%20interactions.Woolfenden, S., Williams, K., Eapen, V., Mensah, F., Hayen, A., Siddiqi, A., & Kemp, L. (2014). Developmental vulnerability – don’t investigate without a model in mind. Child: Care, Health and Development, 41(3), 337–345. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12181

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