1. Read the following article:
  2.  
    • Rezaianzadeh, A., Ghorbani, M., Rezaeian, S., & Kassani, A. (2018). Red Meat Consumption and Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal women: A systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PDF). Middle East Journal of Cancer, 9(1), 5-12.
    •  
    •  
  3.  
    1. 1.Describe the relative risk (RR) and how it was computed in this research article.
    2.  
    3. 2. Compare and contrast the differences in relative risk (RR) between red meat consumption and breast cancer risk in case-control studies and cohort studies.
    4.  
    5. 3.Is the relative risk statistically significant between the case-control studies and cohort studies? Why/why not? Please explain your response.
    6.  
    7. 4.Identify two results of this research focusing on red meat consumption and breast cancer risk in this meta-analysis.
    8.  
    9. 5. Describe your area of greatest learning from reading this research article.
    10.  
    11.  

Your post must have at least two unique peer-reviewed, scholarly references. These references should come from sources other than your textbook or web sites and must be included in the text of the initial discussion post.

 

Rubric

Provides clear examples supported by course content and references. three or more references, using at least one new scholarly resource that was not provided in the course materials. All instruction requirements noted.

 

 

This is the required textbook going forward.

 

  • Elmore, J.G., Wild, D.M.G., Nelson, H.D., & Katz, D.L. (2020). Jekel’s epidemiology, biostatistics, preventive medicine, and public health (5th ed.). Elsevier.

 

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Question 1

Which of the following is not usually an aim of epidemiology? Answer

 

Question 2

Which of the following activities characterizes a clinical approach (as opposed to an epidemiologic approach)? Answer

 

Question 3

Which of the following activities characterizes an epidemiologic approach (as opposed to a clinical approach)? Answer

 

Question 4

The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is responsible for (give the best answer): Answer

 

Question 5

Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality may reflect: Answer

 

both A and B Question 6

John Snow, author of Snow on Cholera: Answer

 

Question 7 In the Yearly Mortality Bill for 1632, consumption referred to: Answer

 

Question 8

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by nutritional counseling for pregnant women Answer

 

Question 9

In 1900, the death rate per 100,000 members of the population for influenza and pneumonia (I & P) was 202.2; it was 22.4 in 2003. How much did the death rate due to I & P decline? Answer

 

Question 10

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by screening for breast cancer Answer

Question 11

Using epidemiology for operational research involves: Answer

Question 12

The difference between primary and secondary prevention of disease is: Answer

 

Question 13

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by half-way houses for persons recovering from addiction Answer

Question 14

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by pasteurization of milk Answer

Question 15

An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:

Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month 12,000 Roller-skating injuries in Metroville 600 Total number of residents injured from roller-skating 1,800 Total number of deaths from roller-skating 90 Total number of deaths from all causes 900

The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was: Answer

Question 16

Blood pressure measurements on adult males 30-39 years of age were obtained in a survey of a representative sample of Twin Cities households. To compare the frequency of hypertension in the white and non-white population surveyed, the most appropriate measure is the: Answer

Question 17

Determining workload and planning the scope of facilities and manpower needs, particularly for chronic disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data? Answer

Question 18

Estimating the frequency of exposure. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data? Answer

 

The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by: Answer

 

Question 20

To express the burden or extent of some condition or attribute in a population. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data? Answer

Question 21

The fundamental tool for etiologic studies of both acute and chronic diseases. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data? Answer

 

Question 22

Beach City has a rising population of 500,000 robust, fertile males and 450,000 robust, fertile females. If there were 4,000 live births, 3 fetal deaths, and 40 maternal deaths, what is the crude birth rate? Answer

Question 23

Age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates by sex in the United States generally show the following sex differences: Answer

 

Question 24

A null hypothesis is most similar to which of the following? Answer

 

Question 25

Reasons for gender differences in mortality may include: Answer

 

Lung cancer mortality among women is increasing faster than among men. What factor(s) would most likely account for this increased cancer rate? Answer

Men are smoking more Question 27

Descriptive epidemiology has the following characteristics (Choose the incorrect option): Answer

 

Question 28

Studies of nativity and migration have reported that: Answer

 

Question 29 Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the downward-drift hypothesis for schizophrenia? Answer

 

Question 30

Which of Mill’s four canons suggests that there is an association between frequency of disease and the potency of a causative factor? Answer

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