Answer the 3 questions below and reply to each student.

Student Reply must be over 250 words.

Make sure all student replies you start it with Hello (Student Name),

Please upload each question in different word documents.

******Question 2 must be APA format and i have attached the GRADING RUBRIC and Guide. *************

Make sure for question 1 we use a scholarly source since it must be attached to the post.

Question 1:

Prepare: Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum, in preparation for discussing the importance of critical thinking skills,

Read the articles

Watch the videos

Review the resources

Reflect: Reflect on the characteristics of a critical thinker. Critical thinking gets you involved in a dialogue with the ideas you read from others in this class. To be a critical thinker, you need to be able to summarize, analyze, hypothesize, and evaluate new information that you encounter.

Write: For this discussion, you will address the following prompts. Keep in mind that the article or video you’ve chosen should not be about critical thinking, but should be about someone making a statement, claim, or argument related to your Final Paper topic. One source should demonstrate good critical thinking skills and the other source should demonstrate the lack or absence of critical thinking skills. Personal examples should not be used.

  • Explain at least five elements of critical thinking that you found in the reading material.
  • Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example in which good critical thinking skills are being demonstrated by the author or speaker. Summarize the content and explain why you think it demonstrates good critical thinking skills.
  • Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example in which the author or speaker lacks good critical thinking skills. Summarize the content and explain why you think it demonstrates the absence of good, critical thinking skills.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length, which should include a thorough response to each prompt. You are required to provide in-text citations of applicable required reading materials and/or any other outside sources you use to support your claims. Provide full reference entries of all sources cited at the end of your response. Please use correct APA format when writing in-text citations (see In-Text Citation Helper (Links to an external site.)) and references (see Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)).

Respond to Peers: Review your classmates’ posts, and respond to at least two of your peers by Day 7. When responding to your classmates, please provide feedback on their examples of good and poor critical thinking skills. Discuss additional ways one can think more critically. Each participation post should be a minimum of 75 words.

Student Reply 1: James Miller

Discussion 1

Explain at least five elements of critical thinking that you found in the reading material.

Critical thinking is comprised of several elemental factors. Erstadt (2018) identifies six critical thinking skills in an article for Rasmussen College and infers that while there is not a defined standard for critical thinking, the six skills as listed are essential elements for becoming a critical thinker (para. 1). The first element of critical thinking is identifying the issue or situation and what factors are an influence. By identifying the problem, one can ask the “who, what, where, when, and how” questions to begin a dialogue to consider a solution. Another element of the critical thought process is examination of the claim. When a claim is made, a critical thinker should not accept the claim on face value. Critical thought should be applied, and the reasoning of the claim should be examined for elements such as fact and/or bias. Examination leads to another element and skill in critical thinking: research. When beginning an argument on a topic, the arguer should have accurate and verifiable data to support their argument. If the arguer’s facts, and figures are questionable, then their argument falls under question and becomes suspect. Proper research of a claim is an essential critical thinking skill. Another essential element of critical thinking is understanding and identifying bias. Recognizing and maintaining an unbiased position can be difficult. Humans are inherently biased in some matters. By staying informed on subject matter and evaluating both sides of an argument prior to forming an opinion, one can decide from an unbiased position. The video provided by Qualisoup (2009) shows, decisions should be made upon sound logic and not emotion or social pressures (2:29). Critical thought should involve unbiased examination of the claim. This leads to a fifth element of critical thought which is reasoning. Reasoning allows one to see a claim in terms other than black and white. Claims are seldom black and white. There are many factors to be considered when weighing the veracity of a claim. Reason allows the decision-maker to examine the many aspects of a claim and logically process the information. A critical thinker handles ambiguity and uncertainty by employing reasoning.

Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example in which the author or speaker lacks good critical thinking skills. Summarize the content and explain why you think it demonstrates the absence of good, critical thinking skills.

In the commentary, “Sanctuary Cities Put Law-Abiding Citizens at Risk” author von Spakovsky (2015) makes several claims concerning increased crime within sanctuary city environments that are specious. The author’s claims do not follow sound critical thought principles. The commentary highlights the assertion that sanctuary cities violate federal law and sanctuary cities promote the harborage of known criminals and victimize innocent Americans. Although, the author is highly credentialed, much of his commentary runs contrary to scholarly reviewed statistical data concerning increased criminal activity in sanctuary cities. While there are over thirty identified sanctuary cities in the United States, the author focuses mainly on the city of San Francisco. This fact does not allow for a true representation of statistical data and presents flaws in the authors reasoning. The author’s supporting data is also biased toward his argument because of the small population examined. If a reader did not examine more sources concerning this topic, the article could lead the reader to believe that sanctuary city status leads to increased criminal activity and that local governments are violating federal law and threatening the safety of citizens.

Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example in which good critical thinking skills are being demonstrated by the author or speaker. Summarize the content and explain why you think it demonstrates good critical thinking skills.

In the article, “The Origins of a Political Trial: The Sanctuary Movement and Political Justice”, author Pirie (1990) examines the sanctuary movement and discusses the legal ramifications of providing sanctuary to illegal immigrants. The author uses critical thought in her presentation as she identifies the issue and examines the topic from several viewpoints. The author examines several sanctuary programs throughout the United States an provides supporting data from studies conducted in regard to those statistics. Her reasoning is unbiased, and she presents information from differing opinions on the topic. The article describes how the United States government and local governments differed in approaches concerning the safe sanctuary of illegal immigrants fleeing untenable situations. These differences are resultant of vague and non-existent policies and laws concerning sanctuary status.

-Dusty Miller

References

Erstad, W. (2018, January 22). 6 critical thinking skills you need to master now. Retrieved from http://www.rasmussen.edu/student-life/blogs/main/c… (Links to an external site.)

Pirie, S. (1990 January). The Origins of a Political Trial: The Sanctuary Movement and Political Justice. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewconten…

QualiaSoup. (2009, December 24). Critical thinking. Retrieved from

Critical Thinking (Links to an external site.)

Critical Thinking

Von Spakovsky, H. (2015, December 09). Sanctuary Cities Put Law-Abiding Citizens at Risk. Retrieved from https://www.heritage.org/homeland-security/comment…

Student Reply 2: David Roberts

Hi Team,

I hope you each are doing well.

In response to this week’s discussion prompt:

Explain at least five elements of critical thinking that you found in the reading material.

Found within “Critical Thinking: What Is It and How Do We Teach It?”, A list of critical thinking skills is given along with detailed information about each, and are as follows:

Analyzing- discovering the nature, functionality, and relationships of the parts that make up the whole.

Applying Standards- interpreting information in accordance with personal, professional, and social criteria.

Discriminating- acknowledging differences and similarities to establish organization of categories or rank.

Information Seeking- utilizing relevant sources to compile scholarly data.

Logical Reasoning- Draw conclusions that are supported by evidence.

Predicting- envision a course of action and the consequences.

Transforming Knowledge- shifting concepts among contexts to give rise to a new idea.

(Scheffer 2001)

Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example in which good critical thinking skills are being demonstrated by the author or speaker. Summarize the content and explain why you think it demonstrates good critical thinking skills.

Reference: Auffhammer, M. (2018). Quantifying Economic Damages from Climate Change. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 32(4), 33–52. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1257/… (Links to an external site.)

Auffhammer (2018) provides a framework of how climate change’s impact can be quantified into statistical information reflecting the contributing factor of rising Co2 levels and the corresponding economic damages. The author utilizes various models such as a cross section Ricardian Framework that shows rising temperatures effect agriculture production negatively by limiting crop choices and devaluing land assets. In addition, the author highlights both the Panel Data model and Long Difference Estimation model which attempt to link the economic outputs of geographic areas to the weather experienced within the areas; but as discussed within the article these models are limited by the omission or assumption of data variables that are either too vast to gather or abated by unrelated factors.

This source demonstrates good critical thinking skills through the authors efforts to apply scholarly standards in their research and analyse, while using logical reasoning to discriminate information and draw future assumptions that give rise to further investigation.

Search the Internet, media, or the Ashford University Library, and find an example in which the author or speaker lacks good critical thinking skills. Summarize the content and explain why you think it demonstrates the absence of good, critical thinking skills.

Reference: Tobin, Emma. (November 6, 2019). 11,000 scientists warn of ‘untold suffering’ caused by climate change (CNN). Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2019/11/05/world/climate-emerg… (Links to an external site.)

Author Emma Tobin (2019) reports on the unrealized goals of climate activist and a call from several scientist to put forth real effort to change otherwise a catastrophic future is what the world is in store for. This source lacks good critical thinking skills by not applying professional scholarly standards of citing direct information of how policymakers have not made an impact on the concerns of climate change, but instead cites emotional quotes of passion to convey the point of concern. Furthermore, the source does little to discriminate or provide information to the contrary of the theme of the article thus not providing both sides of the discussion.

I look forward to reading yalls posts!

Warm Regards,

Roberts, David

References

Auffhammer, M. (2018). Quantifying Economic Damages from Climate Change. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 32(4), 33–52. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1257/… (Links to an external site.)

B.K. Scheffer and M.G. Rubenfeld. (2001). “A Consensus Statement on Critical Thinking in Nursing,” Journal of Nursing Education, 39, 352-9. Retrieved from: http://www.umich.edu/~elements/probsolv/strategy/c… (Links to an external site.)

Tobin, Emma. (November 6, 2019). 11,000 scientists warn of ‘untold suffering’ caused by climate change (CNN). Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2019/11/05/world/climate-emerg…

Question 2:

Prepare: Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum, read the articles Teaching Writing Skills That Enhance Student Success in Future Employment ; An Inner Barrier to Career Development: Preconditions of the Impostor Phenomenon and Consequences for Career Development (Links to an external site.); and 9 Questions That’ll Help You Find Your Dream Career (Links to an external site.); watch the video Business, Management & Administration (Links to an external site.); and review the General Education Curriculum found in General Academic Information and Policies (Links to an external site.) in the Ashford University Catalog. This catalog addresses the core competencies that the general education courses must cover: Ethical Reasoning, Written Communication, Oral and Interpersonal Communication, Information Literacy, Critical Thinking, and Quantitative Reasoning.

Reflect: Think about the core competencies as previously mentioned, and ponder your time taking general education courses. Reflect on the specific courses not associated with your college major and determine the level of new information you have acquired that relates to the core competencies. You must also think about a potential job you might apply to once you graduate and determine what skills you developed through general education courses that make you qualified for a specific job.

Write: For this discussion, you will address the following prompts:

  • Review a job description through a job website (e.g., Career Builder (Links to an external site.), Monster (Links to an external site.), etc.) in your desired career field. Please provide the job title and the link to the job description.
  • Identify at least five skills you have obtained through your general education courses that will make you successful at this job.
  • Demonstrate with at least two examples how your newly acquired knowledge and skills have shaped both your personal and professional development.
  • Describe your plans for putting your education to use within your community.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length, which should include a thorough response to each prompt. You are required to provide in-text citations of applicable required reading materials and/or any other outside sources you use to support your claims. Provide full reference entries of all sources cited at the end of your response. Please use correct APA format when writing in-text citations (see In-Text Citation Helper (Links to an external site.)) and references (see Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)).


Question 3:

Purpose: The primary goal of this weekly assignment is to enable you to understand the revision process and revise your paper with the help of a writing specialist.

Prepare:

Step 1: Prepare a shortened version of your Final Paper (at least four pages) by including the following:

  • Introduction paragraph and thesis statement you developed for your Week 3 Assignment.
  • Background information of the global societal issue you have chosen.
  • Brief argument supporting at least two solutions to the global societal issue.
  • Conclusion paragraph.
  • Must document any information used from at least five scholarly sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) Note that you will need at least eight scholarly sources for your Final Paper in Week 5.

Step 2: After you have completed a rough draft of your paper, submit that draft to the Ashford Writing Center by using the instructions found in the Paper Review (Links to an external site.) page. Your paper will be returned within 24 hours, so give yourself enough time to complete and submit it prior to the due date.

Reflect: Carefully review the revision letter and the margin comments that you see on your returned paper. Consider each of the suggestions provided to help you to revise your paper.

Write:

What You Need to Submit to Waypoint:

  • Upload the PDF document that contains the feedback from the Writing Center specialist.
  • Submit the journal assignment answering the following questions in at least 400 words:
    • Identify the top three issues your writing specialist focused on in your rough draft (e.g., paragraph structure, proper use of quotations, thesis statement, etc.).
      • In what ways were those issues surprising?
    • Describe what you learned from some of the feedback your writing specialist provided as explanations.
      • Was this feedback helpful?
    • Evaluate the usefulness of the paper review tool.
      • In what ways did this activity improve your academic writing skills?
      • Will you use the Ashford Writing Center to review your work in the future? Why or why not?
    • Identify Writing Center Video Tutorials (Links to an external site.) that you find most useful and explain why. Also, identify tutorial(s) you found least useful and explain why.

The journal part of the assignment does not need to be formatted in APA style; however, correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation is required.

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