Health disparities is a profound difference in healthcare opportunities and services available to the public. It can be based on certain factors such as race, social inequalities, mortalities, morbidity, mental health, chronic health conditions, accidents, cancer, health coverage economics and environmental disadvantages (Kotch, 2010). health disparities usually affect people that have experienced obstacles in life because of those certain factors mentioned earlier, and those who have always been discriminated against. Whether it was because of color, gender, sexual preference, or geographic disadvantages, they stepped outside of the norm accepted by society and must suffer inequalities in health care.While most agree that disparities in health are a social justice issue, underlying economic issues that exacerbate these differences have not been recognized. The source of healthcare disparities includes lack of access to healthcare professionals, providers, stereotyping cultural barriers, poor communication between medical providers and sick clients, varieties in geography, and lack of access to an appropriate coverage, at the individual level in terms of adverse impacts on employment and greater out-of-pocket health care expenditures, and second, at the population level by evaluating costs to government and business. We also make the case that the adverse economic effects of racial and ethnic health disparities impact every American. In this way, we seek to provide new incentives for all Americans to take action to eliminate health disparities. (Suthers,2008).Racial and ethnic diversity has been present since the evolution of this society and the healthcare sector is not an exception. “The use of social and economic inequalities based on race and ethnicity has been the main theme and dilemma of the history of the United States. formed through generations by the conquest of indigenous peoples and the tsunami of both coerced and uncoerced immigrants from all over the world” (Pedraza and Rumbaut, 1996, xvi). Failures of the healthcare system in eliminating inequalities lead to the failure of prevention of diseases, as well as failure to provide effective and timely care to the needy people (Gawande, 2011) local, state, and federal policies to address the social and legal challenges associated with the racial/ethnic disparities that affect the health and well-being of a vulnerable and underserved population.The Policy recommendations are data collection/research. State programs may collect race/ethnicity and language preference data for all beneficiaries, members, and clinical encounters. This information should be kept confidential and be used for reporting and monitoring racial and ethnic disparities, quality improvement initiatives, and targeted program development. Advances in the use of comprehensive administrative data sets have allowed researchers to answer significant questions focused on educational policy and practice Bustamante et al., (2014). Mirroring these advancements is a growing literature that problematizes conventional racial and ethnic categories by developing theoretical models that include additional layers of individual identity.Furthermore, States can help to ensure an adequate supply of culturally aware providers to promote higher quality and more efficient services. States can require or encourage providers (nurses, dentists, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) to receive cultural competency training prior to receiving a state license. Providers should have knowledge of enhanced risks relating to race, ethnicity, and socioeconomics.Moreover, states need to increase the supply of minority health care providers. Minority providers are more likely to serve in minority communities, thus increasing access for these populations. States need an adequate number of providers who know the values, beliefs, traditions, and cultures of the patients they serve. States should strive to produce a diverse workforce that mirrors its population so that minorities within health care professions are represented at a similar percentage to their representation within the state. To eliminate significant disparities in mental health care and improve overall health status, I would recommend the following propositions developed and introduced by the American Psychological Association (2017). Due to the lack of attention to the behavioral and mental health demands of ethnic and racial minority groups and the inadequate provision of culturally sensitive mental health care to the vulnerable communities, there is a great need to foster collaboration among the different stakeholders, including physicians, patients, and their family members and find ways to close the gap and eliminate disparities in healthcare.Reference:J. Almeida, KB Biello, F. Pedraza, S. Wintner (2016)The Association between Anti-immigrant Policies and Perceived Discrimination among Latinos in the US Center For Medicare Advocacy. (2021). Racial and ethnic health care disparities. Medicare Advocacy. https://medicareadvocacy.org/medicare-info/healthcaredisparities/#:~:text=%5B9%5D%20The%20underlying%20causes%20of,a%20lack% 20of%20health%20education.Gawande, A. (2011, January 17). The hot spotters. The New Yorker.Center For Medicare Advocacy. (2021). Racial and ethnic health care disparities. Medicare Advocacy. https://medicareadvocacy.org/medicare-info/healthcaredisparities/#:~:text=%5B9%5D%20The%20underlying%20causes%20of,a%20lack% 20of%20health%20education.Gawande, A. (2011, January 17). The hot spotters. The New Yorker.Kaiser Health News. (2020, January 23). ‘Hotspotting’ for heavy health care users marches on, despite new doubts. U.S. News. https://www.usnews.com/news/healthiest-communities/articles/2020-01-23/hotspotting-for-heavy-health-care-users-marches-on-despite-doubtsEvaluating the Economic Causes and Consequences of Racial and Ethnic Health DisparitiesKristen Suthers, PhD, MPHhttps://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.174.3233&rep=rep1&type=pdfArturo Vargas Bustamante .,2014https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264120612_Racial_and_Ethnic_Disparities_in_Health_Care

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