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White Collar Crime

Which white-collar crime(s) would you target first, and why?

White-collar crimes have been defined as the sort of criminal offenses committed by individuals of high social status and respectability in the duration of their occupations. As a result, white-collar crime is closely related with corporate crime because the opportunity for bribery, fraud, embezzlement, insider- trading, money laundering and forgery are more available to white- collar workers. Though all white-collar crimes are significant, I would target four main types of white-collar crimes; these include public corruption, counterfeiting, tax evasion and bribery. The reason why I would target these crimes first is that they affect a large population of people not just a corporation or a few people (Green 23- 67).

These are crimes that can affect the economy of a corporation, and, therefore, a large group of people if let to spread. Public corruption is the white-collar crime that involves the breach of trust of the public, and the abuse of a public office. Generally, a government official might violate the law when they ask, accept, demand, solicit or agree to take anything in exchange for something else. Counterfeiting is the crime that involves the imitation or copying of items without authority and using the imitation for the original item. Bribery is the same as public corruption, only it also affects the individuals who accept to give anything in return for something else. Tax evasion is another significant crime that involves an individual failing to pay tax (Green 23- 67).

Are there any white-collar crimes you would pay little or no attention to? If so, why?

Yes. Though all white- collar crimes are essential and should be taken seriously, I would give some white collar- crimes less attention to. Examples of these crimes include such things as pyramid schemes, fortunetellers, advanced fee schemes, auto repair schemes, inside trading schemes, coupon redemption schemes, and advertisement schemes. The reason why I would not give these schemes a lot of attention is that they only affect those who are ignorant, and can be avoided if individuals act more diligently and if they inquire about the services being offered to them before going through with deals. Some schemes such as the advertisement schemes are some of the most common avoidable frauds. The advertisers usually warn individuals not to trust such advertisements but people go ahead and trust them. If people practiced more discretion and diligence, these crimes would be done away with (Green 23- 67).

What proportion of resources (money and personnel) would you devote to the different types of white-collar crimes and why?

To fight white- collar crimes, immense resources both in the form of personnel and money are needed. To efficiently fight these crimes, I would assign more money and personnel to the most significant crimes and less money and personnel to the crimes that are less serious. For example, I would assign more resources to such crimes as tax evasion, public corruption, counterfeiting, and bribery, money laundering and other forms of serious frauds. However, less money and personnel would go to less serious crimes such as pyramid schemes, fortunetellers, advanced fee schemes, auto repair schemes, inside trading schemes, coupon redemption schemes, and advertisement schemes because they do not need as much money to be addressed. Some of these crimes require intensive examination, audits, analysis and investigations to be able to come to the truth. The less serious crimes are more obvious and less to solve, and, therefore, need fewer resources to be solved (Hefendehl 761- 89).

What strategies would you apply and why?

There are various strategies that I would use to combat white- collar crime. The first step would be to notify the public about possible fraud schemes, and let them be aware of the imminent criminals. Another strategy would be to limit opportunities of fraud by coming up with internal controls and checking overrides of the established controls. Another strategy would involve managing incentives and pressures inherent in the process of business. Focusing on detection and prevention efforts on risks were possible financial losses are imminent is also another significant strategy. In addition to these, fostering a strong detection perception through fraud identification investigation and detection methods can also be useful. Zero tolerance policy to such crimes should be established, in addition to employing the most ethical employees as I can possibly get (Shapiro 346- 65).

How would you be able to measure your success?

In this case, measuring the success of the above strategies would mean that I would have to note a decline in white- collar crimes. If it were reported that white- collar crimes have gone down, then that would be a good measure of the effectiveness of the strategies. Also another measure of effectiveness if these strategies would be if the public offices perform more efficiently and effectively. Some of the most limiting aspects to the efficiency and effectiveness of most public offices are such white- collar crimes as public corruption and bribery. An increase in the efficiency and the satisfaction of the public about the efficiency of the offices would be an indication that the strategies are actually working. Another thing that can be a measure of success of the strategies is checking of the finances and accounts of a corporate or a public office and comparing the data with that of the previous years. If there is a significant difference then this could be a sign that fraud was present and it has reduced. In addition, if the complaints by the public decline of incidences of being a scheme, then this is a good sign that the strategies might be working (Dumaine 193- 6).

How long would it be until you could see results?

The time it takes for these strategies to work can be varied, varying from one organization to another. However, it should be noted that these strategies could take a while for changes to be noted especially because of the fact they involve the introduction of situations or strategies that can change the culture of the organization. Implementing organizational culture change is never easy and patient should be mastered in this case, as some organizations might take more than a year to implement the basics of fraud control and regulation. However, some changes are easier to manage, and, as it follows, they can be quickly and easily be implemented in a company in a short while. Overall, care should be taken in implementing these strategies because when they are not well designed and implemented into the business process of a company they can be ineffective and inefficient in flushing out white- collar crime (Shapiro 346- 65).

Works cited

Dumaine, B. ‘Beating Bolder Corporate Crooks’. Fortune 193- 96. Print

Green, Stuart. Lying, Cheating, and Stealing: A Moral Theory of White Collar Crime. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print

Hefendehl, Roland. ‘Addressing White Collar Crime on a Domestic Level Any Lessons Learned for International Criminal Law?’ J Int Criminal Justice 8. 3 (2010):769-782. Print

Shapiro, Susan (1990). ‘Collaring the Crime, not the Criminal: Reconsidering the Concept of White-collar Crime.’  American Sociological Review 55: 346–65. Print

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(Name)

(Instructors’ name)

(Course)

(Date)

White Collar Crime

Which white-collar crime(s) would you target first, and why?

White-collar crimes have been defined as the sort of criminal offenses committed by individuals of high social status and respectability in the duration of their occupations. As a result, white-collar crime is closely related with corporate crime because the opportunity for bribery, fraud, embezzlement, insider- trading, money laundering and forgery are more available to white- collar workers. Though all white-collar crimes are significant, I would target four main types of white-collar crimes; these include public corruption, counterfeiting, tax evasion and bribery. The reason why I would target these crimes first is that they affect a large population of people not just a corporation or a few people (Green 23- 67).

These are crimes that can affect the economy of a corporation, and, therefore, a large group of people if let to spread. Public corruption is the white-collar crime that involves the breach of trust of the public, and the abuse of a public office. Generally, a government official might violate the law when they ask, accept, demand, solicit or agree to take anything in exchange for something else. Counterfeiting is the crime that involves the imitation or copying of items without authority and using the imitation for the original item. Bribery is the same as public corruption, only it also affects the individuals who accept to give anything in return for something else. Tax evasion is another significant crime that involves an individual failing to pay tax (Green 23- 67).

Are there any white-collar crimes you would pay little or no attention to? If so, why?

Yes. Though all white- collar crimes are essential and should be taken seriously, I would give some white collar- crimes less attention to. Examples of these crimes include such things as pyramid schemes, fortunetellers, advanced fee schemes, auto repair schemes, inside trading schemes, coupon redemption schemes, and advertisement schemes. The reason why I would not give these schemes a lot of attention is that they only affect those who are ignorant, and can be avoided if individuals act more diligently and if they inquire about the services being offered to them before going through with deals. Some schemes such as the advertisement schemes are some of the most common avoidable frauds. The advertisers usually warn individuals not to trust such advertisements but people go ahead and trust them. If people practiced more discretion and diligence, these crimes would be done away with (Green 23- 67).

What proportion of resources (money and personnel) would you devote to the different types of white-collar crimes and why?

To fight white- collar crimes, immense resources both in the form of personnel and money are needed. To efficiently fight these crimes, I would assign more money and personnel to the most significant crimes and less money and personnel to the crimes that are less serious. For example, I would assign more resources to such crimes as tax evasion, public corruption, counterfeiting, and bribery, money laundering and other forms of serious frauds. However, less money and personnel would go to less serious crimes such as pyramid schemes, fortunetellers, advanced fee schemes, auto repair schemes, inside trading schemes, coupon redemption schemes, and advertisement schemes because they do not need as much money to be addressed. Some of these crimes require intensive examination, audits, analysis and investigations to be able to come to the truth. The less serious crimes are more obvious and less to solve, and, therefore, need fewer resources to be solved (Hefendehl 761- 89).

What strategies would you apply and why?

There are various strategies that I would use to combat white- collar crime. The first step would be to notify the public about possible fraud schemes, and let them be aware of the imminent criminals. Another strategy would be to limit opportunities of fraud by coming up with internal controls and checking overrides of the established controls. Another strategy would involve managing incentives and pressures inherent in the process of business. Focusing on detection and prevention efforts on risks were possible financial losses are imminent is also another significant strategy. In addition to these, fostering a strong detection perception through fraud identification investigation and detection methods can also be useful. Zero tolerance policy to such crimes should be established, in addition to employing the most ethical employees as I can possibly get (Shapiro 346- 65).

How would you be able to measure your success?

In this case, measuring the success of the above strategies would mean that I would have to note a decline in white- collar crimes. If it were reported that white- collar crimes have gone down, then that would be a good measure of the effectiveness of the strategies. Also another measure of effectiveness if these strategies would be if the public offices perform more efficiently and effectively. Some of the most limiting aspects to the efficiency and effectiveness of most public offices are such white- collar crimes as public corruption and bribery. An increase in the efficiency and the satisfaction of the public about the efficiency of the offices would be an indication that the strategies are actually working. Another thing that can be a measure of success of the strategies is checking of the finances and accounts of a corporate or a public office and comparing the data with that of the previous years. If there is a significant difference then this could be a sign that fraud was present and it has reduced. In addition, if the complaints by the public decline of incidences of being a scheme, then this is a good sign that the strategies might be working (Dumaine 193- 6).

How long would it be until you could see results?

The time it takes for these strategies to work can be varied, varying from one organization to another. However, it should be noted that these strategies could take a while for changes to be noted especially because of the fact they involve the introduction of situations or strategies that can change the culture of the organization. Implementing organizational culture change is never easy and patient should be mastered in this case, as some organizations might take more than a year to implement the basics of fraud control and regulation. However, some changes are easier to manage, and, as it follows, they can be quickly and easily be implemented in a company in a short while. Overall, care should be taken in implementing these strategies because when they are not well designed and implemented into the business process of a company they can be ineffective and inefficient in flushing out white- collar crime (Shapiro 346- 65).

Works cited

Dumaine, B. ‘Beating Bolder Corporate Crooks’. Fortune 193- 96. Print

Green, Stuart. Lying, Cheating, and Stealing: A Moral Theory of White Collar Crime. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print

Hefendehl, Roland. ‘Addressing White Collar Crime on a Domestic Level Any Lessons Learned for International Criminal Law?’ J Int Criminal Justice 8. 3 (2010):769-782. Print

Shapiro, Susan (1990). ‘Collaring the Crime, not the Criminal: Reconsidering the Concept of White-collar Crime.’  American Sociological Review 55: 346–65. Print

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