Cancer is an abnormal development of the cells. Despite the fact that there’s restriction of space, shared nutrients by other cells, or body signals which are being sent from the body to stop reproduction, cancer cells reproduce rapidly. Cancer cells often differ from healthy cells, do not function properly and can spread to many parts of the body. So tumors are group of cells that grow rapidly and they keep dividing. This makes it hard to control.
What are the Causes of Cancer?
The cause of cancer hasn’t been established yet. Scientists believe that cancer is caused jointly by the interaction of many factors. The factors may be genetic, environmental or constitutional features of the person.
Childhood cancer diagnoses, therapies and prognosis differ from adult cancers. Diagnosis Survival rate and the cause of the cancer are the main differences. The overall survival rate for childhood cancer for five years is around 80%, while for adult cancers it is 68%. It is thought that this difference is because childhood cancer is more therapeutic and a child can accept more aggressive therapy.
In stem cells, simple cells that produce other special cells that the body needs, children can develop cancers. Sporadic (accidental) cell changes or mutations are the common cause of childhood cancer. In adults, the type of cell that becomes cancerous is usually the epithelial cell. Epithelial cells line the body cavity and cover the corpse’s surface. Over time, due to environmental exposures, cancer was present in these cells. Adult cancers are sometimes called acquired for this reason.
The Risk Factors of Cancer
Repeated exposures or risk factors, especially in adults, have been linked with some cancers. The probability of a person developing a condition can be increased by a risk factor. However, a risk factor does not necessarily reduce the body’s disease resistance. The following factors and mechanisms have been suggested as a contribution to cancer:
- Lifestyle factors. The tobacco consumption, a high-fat diet and toxic chemical substances are examples of lifestyle choices that may risk some adult cancers. Most cancer children are, however, too young for long-term exposure to these lifestyle factors.
- Family history, heritage and genetics can play an important role in certain childhood cancers. A family may be more than once affected by cancer of different forms. If the disease is caused by genetic mutation, exposure to chemicals near the home of a family, combining or just coincidence, it is not known.
- Certain genetic conditions. The immune system is a complex system that helps to prevent infection and disease in our bodies. Cells that later mature and work as part of the immune system are produced by the bone marrow. There is one theory that the cells in the bone marrow, or stem cells, become damaged or faulty, so that they become abnormal cells or cancer cells when reproduced in order to produce more cells. An inherited genetical defect or exposure to a virus or toxin might be responsible for the defect in the stem cells.
- Specific virus exposures. An increasing risk of developing certain childhood cancers such as Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with the Epstein-Barm virus and HIV, the virus causing AIDS. Perhaps the virus will somehow alter a cell. This cell then reproduces a modified cell and ultimately becomes a cancer cell that reproduces more cancer cells.
- Environmental exposures. For a direct link with childhood cancer, pesticides, fertilizers and power lines have been investigated. In some neighborhoods and/or towns, cancer has been shown in unrelated children. It is unknown whether or not an exposure to these agents is prenatal or infant that causes cancer or is a coincidence.
Some forms of chemical treatment and radiation with high doses. In certain cases, children exposed to these agents may later in life develop a second malignancy. These high levels of cancer may alter cells and/or the immune system. A second malignancy is a cancer caused by a different cancer therapy.
How Is Cancer Diagnosed?
No single test can diagnose cancer accurately. A thorough history and physical examination together with diagnostic tests usually require a thorough evaluation. Many tests are necessary if a person has cancer or if a different condition (e.g. an infection) imitates cancer symptoms.
Effective diagnostic tests are used to confirm or eliminate disease, monitor the disease process and plan and evaluate treatment efficacy. Repeated tests need to be done in some cases if a person’s condition has been changed, the sample taken is not good or the test result is abnormal.
Circumstances can include imaging, laboratory tests, tumor biopsy, endoscopic exams, operations and/or genetic tests. Cancer diagnostics can be a result of cancer testing.
Cancer diagnosis methods:
- Lab tests
- Diagnostic imaging
- Endoscopic exams
- Genetic tests
- Tumor biopsies