Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that is specific to the testicles of a male. National Cancer Institute (2020) describes that this cancer can be present in the tissues of one or both testicles and is often curable. Some cancers have risk factors that distinguish the possibility of that specific cancer developing in a person more than another cancer. The primary risk factors that exist for testicular cancer age 15-34 years, cryptorchidism (undescended testicle), one testicle that is much smaller than the other, previous history of testicular cancer, Caucasian ethnicity, family history of testicular cancer, and body size (American Cancer Society, 2020). Although this list is extensive, these are the primary risk factors that are specific to the development of testicular cancer and gives providers focused assessment components when diagnosing testicular cancer in patients.

Screening options exist for most diseases and certain cancers. Pender, Murdaugh, and Parsons (2015) explains various guidelines that exist for screening and preventative services. The authors discuss that screening is not right for every health problem, but overall they assist in uncovering concerning health problems and uncertainties and the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force contributes to the development of the serious decisions that must be made regarding preventative services (Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2015). Currently, there are not standards or routine screening tests that exist for detection of testicular cancer. The National Cancer Institute (2020) discusses that the reason no specific guidelines for early detection exist is because most of the current screening that takes place has not been thoroughly studied related to testicular self-exams, regular doctor exams, and other screening tests to determine if it would decrease the possibility of dying from testicular cancer. The authors discuss that men often find testicular cancer on their own by chance or by self-examination (National Cancer Institute, 2020).The patient that is in the office is not at high risk for testicular cancer. Although the patient’s father has a history of prostate cancer, this is not a specific risk factor for developing testicular cancer. In addition, the patient is outside the common age range for this specific cancer. Due to the patient’s medical history being basically non-existent and his white race, he is also exceptionally low risk for developing testicular cancer. Screening is not recommended for this patient because he is not at risk. Counseling the patient on self-examinations and demonstrating on how to perform a self-examination is helpful to alleviate some of the anxiety that he may be experiencing related to developing testicular cancer. Showing the patient what is normal and what is abnormal serves as useful education for patient teaching on how to self-screen.ReferencesAmerican Cancer Society (2020). Risk factors for testicular cancer. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/testicular-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.htmlNational Cancer Institute. (2020). Testicular cancer screening (PDQ). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/testicular/patient/testicular-screening-pdq#_AboutThis_1Pender, N., Murdaugh, C., Parsons, M., (2015). Health Promotion and Nursing Practice (7th edition). Pearson Education

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