#1. Colorectal response

Thank you for your post! When reading your post on colorectal cancer, most of the risk factors are noted to be like prostate cancer. Screening for colorectal cancer reduces the mortality rate and helps in advancement in screening methods. Screening methods such as “blood-based screening with methylated Septin 9 (SEPT9) DNA (Epi procolon, stool-based screening with fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and the multianalyte fecal test combining FIT and stool DNA (Cologuard)” (Roth, DeVos & Ramsey, 2019, p. 256) are current tools being used for diagnostic purposes. Even though the United States public health organizations have contributed to an enormous amount of resources in promoting health awareness on colorectal cancer screening, it has been shown that only 65% of Americans received guidance for testing. Insurance and cost of testing play a major role in individuals’ decision making when it comes to screening. “The systemic review suggested that financial barriers, embarrassment/discomfort of undergoing the screening procedure, lack knowledge thus lack of perceived need, and the lack of a physician’s recommendation were most commonly perceived barriers to CRC screening in a rural population” (Roth, DeVos & Ramsey, 2019, p. 256). The importance of insurance coverage has been researched in several quantitative studies suggesting that individuals who were not covered by an insurance policy were less likely to be up to date with screening. High screening costs and lack of insurance coverage were noted to be the main barriers to colorectal cancer screening.References:Roth, J. A., DeVos, T., & Ramsey, S. D. (2019). Clinical and budget impact of increasing colorectal cancer screening by blood- and stool-based testing. American health & drug benefits, 12(5), 256-262. ISSN: 1942-2962Wang, H., Roy, S., Kim, J., Farazi, P. A., Siahpush, M., & Su, D. (2019). Barriers of colorectal cancer screening in rural USA: a systematic review. Rural and remote health, 19, 5181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22605/RRH5181


#2. Prostrate


Your post was informative related to prostate cancer screening guidelines. The guidelines that you shared from USPSTF are quite easy to understand and simplistic for providers to determine which patients are at higher risk than others. For this given situation, I would counsel the patient specifically on the age recommendations for prostate cancer. Generally, most individuals should receive routine screening at a physical check up by the age of 50. Explaining to the individual that other than his age, he is at a normal risk for prostate cancer. In addition, counseling on the AAFP guidelines for prostate cancer, allowing the patient to make an informed decision related to risks and benefits for routine PSA screening is important (Stevermer & Fink, 2018). Providing patients with the necessary knowledge to make an informed decision about their health care is something some providers lack when educating patients to make their own health decisions. It is often assumed that patients understand this when they actually have minimal knowledge on the topic.I would also counsel the patient on the importance of continuing physical activity as he is. Shephard (2012) explains that physical activity has a direct preventative effect on different cancers and a sedentary lifestyle can increase risk of developing cancer. Pender (2015) suggest that muscle strengthening activities are suggested two days a week at a high intensity to support muscle growth. Lastly, I would educate the patient on the idea of a friend having prostate cancer being affiliated with him being at risk for prostate cancer and explain that this is not a risk factor. Familial history of prostate cancer is shown to be a risk factor, but not a friend’s history.In summary, there are a number of things that a patient should be counselled on related to prostate cancer. The patient can receive his first screening for prostate cancer because he is in the age range to be assessed. Making sure that the patient understands the risk factors and whether routine screening is necessary so he can make an informed decision. Encouraging patients to continue exercising if they already do and educating on the importance of exercising if they currently do not is another thing to include in counseling. The patient discussed is doing a lot of things appropriately and should continue what he does.ReferencesPender, N., Murdaugh, C., Parsons, M., (2015). Health Promotion and Nursing Practice (7th edition). Pearson Education

Shephard, R. J. (2012). Exercise in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Sports medicine, 15(4), 258-280.Stevermer, J. J., & Fink, K. S. (2018). Counseling Patients About Prostate Cancer Screening. American family physician, 98(8), 478-483.

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