The purpose of this writing is to discuss fall prevention, identify the risk factors of falls in the elderly, and the outpatient and inpatient assessment used to evaluate patients prone to falls.A fall is prevalent among the vulnerable groups’ such as children, the elderly, women, and pregnant women, and those who are medically compromised, however, fall is frequent in older adults. Kiel, (2020) states that fall is unintentionally ending up on the ground or other lower level. Falls are not fainting or sudden illness; falls because of a car crash or act of nature such as an earthquake or tornado. Kiel, (2020) study suggests 1 in 3 adults over 65 falls each year, half of the older adults over age 80 fall each year, making fall the 5th leading cause of death over age 65. Falls lead to significant injuries such as fractures, brain trauma, and hospitalization. Falls impedes people’s independence, reduces individuals’ social and physical activities, increases the risk of older adults ending up in a nursing home. Falls interferes with adult activities of daily living.Several factors increase the risk of falls in geriatrics; these include, an adult with the previous history of falls due to arthritis, or other diseases like dementia, dizziness, incontinence, pain, etc.; individuals with gait or balance problem, and certain medications may also increase the risk for falling (). Examples of these medications include some over the counter medications like sleeping aid pills, antidepressants, anti-psychotics, some herbal medicines, etc. Popp et al. (2020) identify other risk factors of falls such as low strength, functional limitations, older adults age 80 and over, people who are frail or low weight, poor nutrition, people with poor sight, environmental issues like poor lightning at home. These varieties of risk factors can be addressed to reduce or avert falls. Kiel, (2020) study reports that the more risk factors a person has, the higher the risks for falling. People with decreased risk factors or no risk factors have a low chance of falling.Fall PreventionSeveral measures can decrease the risk of falling in older adults; one of those is exercise. Hoenig & Colon-Emeric (2020) express that exercise has no age limits; people can start exercising at any age, although this can be challenging for older adults who have not exercised before. Exercise helps to build strength, increase balance, endurance, and independence when done safely.Medication reviews: providers can review adult medications and see if any of the ones causing the risk of falling can be eliminated or changed for the ones with lesser side effects. An older adult must seek providers review with any over the counter medications to prevent drug reaction and risks of increased complications.Kiel, (2020) infer that home safety measures are essential for the geriatric population and particularly those who are at higher risk of falling. Providers must raise the elderly awareness to avoid electrical cords, torn rugs/carpets, or any other hazards in the pathways within the home environment to reduce the hazards of falls. Improve lighting, install handrails in the bathrooms, and handrails by the stairs help people have something to hold on to as they mobilize in their homes. Use of a cane or a walker for support and balance to vulnerable older adults, thereby reducing fall risks.Proper nutrition and intake of vitamin D are essential for healthy bone and stability (Bouillon (2020). A physical checkup is necessary for older adults, vision checkups and correction where needed, blood pressure including orthostatic BP reviews, checking joints and muscle, brain and cognitive status, a heart condition, feet checks, and ensuring appropriate feet wear is essential for balance and prevent falling. Encourage physical activities and physiotherapy, especially those who are prone to falling.A multifactorial outpatient and inpatient modality is used for evaluating geriatrics prone to falls or those who fall more frequently. Heflin, (2020), explains that this model includes a multidisciplinary team; physician, nurse, physical therapist, social worker occupational therapist. These team set goals for falls prevention, evaluate the causes and risk factors for falling, identify the measures to mitigate the risks and supports the patient and their family with the required treatments, instructions to minimize the risk, referrals and directs community resources where appropriate.In summary, falls can be prevented among the elderly, and in most cases, avoided if appropriate measures exist. Advanced nurse practitioners must educate patients and their families on a safe approach for preventing falls and collaborate with a multidisciplinary team in evaluating adults prone to fall, so that appropriate resources implemented to promote elderly health and well-being.ReferencesBouillon, R. (2020). Vitamin D and extraskeletal health. UpToDate. Retrieved From:, M., T. (2020). Geriatric health maintenance. UpToDate. Retrieved from:, H., & Colon-Emeric, C. (2020). Overview of geriatric rehabilitation: Patient assessment and common indications for rehabilitation. UpToDate. Retrieved from: file:///D:/PMHNP/Current%20Classes%20PSY%202020/NU%20629%20Health%20Promotion/Week%2010%20in%20progress/Overview%20of%20geriatric%20rehabilitation.Kiel, D., P. (2020). Falls in older persons: Risk factors and patient evaluation. UpToDate. Retrieved From:, J., Notthoff, N. & Warner, L., M. (2020). Self-Efficacy for Physical Activity—A Question of Item Framing and Age? Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 28, 173-179.

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