Write your thesis statement and introduction (one paragraph).

 

 

  • Annotated bibliography
    • Must contain at least four scholarly literature sources and two credible websites
    • Must contain annotations
    •  

References: At minimum a total of 6 (six) sources (at least 4 journal articles and 2 websites) (9 sources total for full points) formatted in APA style in the reference section and annotated bibliography, and citations in body of the text

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Discussion

            The discussion section should contain two to five paragraphs and should be a discussion of how the literature review impacts your topic.  Go back to your thesis statement and be sure to clearly apply your literature review to your thesis statement.  This is where you are allowed to discuss the topic and write the information you wish to share as the writer; you might choose to add practice examples.  New sources need to be cited and referenced.

 

The discussion section of your paper will start after your Literature Review section. Before submitting, ensure your references are on a separate reference page and Annotated Bib. starts on a separate page!

This is a good week to start reviewing the comments from previous papers and start making correction, if you have not already done so. The discussion is your own words supported by the literature (this means citing). If you refer to your practice setting make sure you avoid first person and contractions.  The discussion should be at least 2-5 paragraphs. A well-developed paragraph should include at least 3 sentences!

Here is an example of a discussion section. Before writing the discussion, think about the top 2 or 3 points that you want the reader to remember from the literature review and elaborate on them.

 

 

Current state concussion laws focus on secondary and tertiary prevention, and fail to address primary prevention (Coxe et al., 2018; Lowrey et al., 2016; Yang et al., 2017). All fifty states have passed concussion laws; however, there are inconsistency between the different states (Coxe et al., 2018; Lowrey et al., 2016; Yang et al., 2017). In order to protect student in grades kindergarten through twelfth grade, the focus of concussions needs to be shifted to prevention instead of treatment.

The majority of concussion or traumatic brain injury (TBI) research has focused on adult populations, even though TBI is the leading cause of death and disability in children (Moore et al., 2018). In North America, there are over 1.5 million cases of TBI being treated and approximately 75% of these cases have been classified as concussions (Moore et al., 2018, p. 14). Moreover, 65% of all pediatric concussion occur during sports and recreation (Moore et al., 2018, p. 14). From 2010 to 2015, the rate of post-concussion syndrome for all patients nearly doubled from 7.3% to 13.2% (BCBSA, 2016, p. 14).

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VACCINATED AGAINST  COVID-19  VERSUS REFUSAL of the VACCINATION

 

 

 

        INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH  and  THESIS STATEMENT

 

Eradicate COVID globally, vaccines are important because they help in the increased production of antibodies that provide immunity against the disease. Therefore, one of the benefits of the COVID-19 vaccines is that will reduce the number of morbidity and mortality cases (Hasan et al., 2021).We all have been affected by the current COVID-19 pandemic.However, the impact of the pandemic and its consequences are felt differently depending on our status as individuals and as members of society. While some try to adapt to working online, homeschooling their children and ordering food via Instacart, others have no choice but to be exposed to the virus while keeping society functioning. Our different social identities and the social groups we belong to determine our inclusion within society and, by extension, our vulnerability to epidemics. COVID-19 is killing people on a large scale. As of October 10, 2020, more than 7.7 million people across every state in the United States and its four territories had tested positive for COVID-19. According to theNew York Timesdatabase, at least 213,876 people with the virus have died in the United States.However, these alarming numbers give us only half of the picture; a closer look at data by different social identities (such as class, gender, age, race, and medical history) shows that minorities have been disproportionally affected by the pandemic. These minorities in the United States are not having their right to health fulfilled.

REFERENCES

“Coronavirus in the U.S.: Latest map and case count,”New York Times(October 10, 2020). Available at https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/us/coronavirus-us-cases.html.

World Health Organization Commission on the Social Determinants of Health,Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health(Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008), 

 

                                                Literature Review

 

Consequences of not getting vaccinated are significant not only to the individual but also to the country. If more people are unvaccinated, it may lead to the development of new COVID-19 variants, which may make the current vaccines less effective, thus, more difficult to eradicate the disease (WHO, 2021). When a disease continuously spreads in a population it changes and replicates, thus, it may lead to more infections and severity hence, increased cases of morbidity as well as mortality (WHO, 2021).  Furthermore, with more cases of infections, hospitalizations are increased which have a significant impact on an individual’s income and the country’s economy. Bartsch et al. (2021) averred that a vaccinated individual may experience minor side effects that require them to incur the cost of over-the-counter drugs for a short period but an unvaccinated person will have to incur the direct cost of hospitalization. The next step to prevent that infection to spread rapidly is to start to educate the population by creating agencies. Having staff  agencies available to travel to public places, such as work, schools, trains, buses, planes, houses , will help the population protect themselves better against the covid-19 virus.

 

 

                                                            Assignment:

Synthesis Assignment Description:(please make any and all corrections that are needed based on your professor’s comments from the last submission)

Prepare the Literature Review section of your paper. Begin with an introductory paragraph that describes your search parameters and what databases were used. Be sure to avoid first person (I, we, me, us, etc.). Include at least one paragraph for each of your sources chosen in your Annotated Bibliography. This is not a repeat of the annotations in the annotated bibliography, but should be written as an essay that flows easily from one point to the next. Remember, your literature review should be at least seven paragraphs (eight for full credit on the final paper), but not more than twelve paragraphs. Each paragraph should be at least three sentences in length, but only contain one or two main points and support. Review your APA resources for how to properly cite references in your text. This is where you will apply in-text citation rules, as each paragraph will indicate the reference from which the information is taken.

Also prepare your reference page. Please review your APA resources as mentioned previously. Submit the entire document. However, only the literature review and reference page will be graded in this module.

 

                                               Assignment Expectations

 

Length: 7-8 to 12 paragraphs for the Literature Review

Structure: Submit with shell intact, complete the Literature Review and Reference section and review and make corrections to the past sections

References: Minimum of a total of 6 (six) sources (at least 4 journal articles and 2 websites) formatted in APA style in the reference section and citations in body of the text (6 journals and 3 websites for full credit on the final)

Format: 

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Assignment: 

 

Prepare the Annotated Bibliography section in your paper. For minimum sources for your paper, find 4 scholarly articles and 2 websites – this would be 6 sources. For full points on the final paper, have 6 scholarly articles and 3 websites, a total of 9 sources. As per your Shell, your Annotated Bibliography section will be added after the Reference section with the heading of, “Annotated Bibliography”. Submit the entire document/shell. However, only the Annotated Bibliography will be graded in this module.

Reminder of Proper Format: The Annotated Bibliography is a different section than the Reference section. There are two parts to the Annotated Bibliography: 1. The reference in APA format, with hanging paragraph indentation.  2. Immediately following each reference, you will need a paragraph describing the contents of the source – this is the annotated portion, it is a short 3 sentence summary of the source. This entire paragraph should be indented .5 inches as a block paragraph. The entire annotated bibliography should be double-spaced, per APA format. Do not add extra space between references.

 

 

 

                Vaccinated Against COVID-19 versus Refusal of Vaccination

 

The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the US government to take measures such as lockdowns to help stop the spread of the disease but with the discovery of vaccines and the continued vaccination of people, the restrictions have been relaxed. However, some people are against the use of vaccines and have been vocal about the issue on both online and offline platforms, their reasons are based on both historical data that fuels the distrust of the healthcare industry and illogical conspiracy theories. For instance, some anti-vaxxers believe that the COVID-19 vaccinations contain microchips, which would enable the monitoring of the global population (Islam, et al., 2021). For some African Americans who are against vaccinations, it is mainly because of distrust of the healthcare industry, in the past scientists used people from the population for medical experiments without their consent (Bunch, 2021). 

Nonetheless, to eradicate COVID globally, vaccines are important because they help in the increased production of antibodies that provide immunity against the disease. Therefore, one of the benefits of the COVID-19 vaccines is that will reduce the number of morbidity and mortality cases (Hasan et al., 2021). Currently, 33.4 million COVID-19 cases and over 600,000 deaths have been reported in the US but vaccination of people has the potential of significantly reducing the severe effects of the disease, thereby enabling the complete return of social normalcy. Another benefit is that vaccinations help reduce hospitalization; according to Moghadas et al. (2020) vaccines with 95 percent efficacy had the potential of reducing non-ICU hospitalization by 65.6 percent and ICU hospitalization by 69.3 percent. Currently, the vaccines that are authorized and recommended in the US to prevent COVID-19 are; Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen, of these, only the Pfizer-BioNTech has a 95 percent efficacy (CDC, 2021).

The consequences of not getting vaccinated are significant not only to the individual but also to the country. If more people are unvaccinated, it may lead to the development of new COVID-19 variants, which may make the current vaccines less effective, thus, more difficult to eradicate the disease (WHO, 2021). When a disease continuously spreads in a population it changes and replicates, thus, it may lead to more infections and severity hence, increased cases of morbidity as well as mortality (WHO, 2021).  Furthermore, with more cases of infections, hospitalizations are increased which have a significant impact on an individual’s income and the country’s economy. Bartsch et al. (2021) averred that a vaccinated individual may experience minor side effects that require them to incur the cost of over-the-counter drugs for a short period but an unvaccinated person will have to incur the direct cost of hospitalization. Also, they may have to seek more treatment for the complications experienced because of COVID-19 such as chest pain. Additionally, with increased hospitalization, people will have to be absent from work leading to loss of productivity and decline in the country’s economic activity (Bartsch et al., 2021). Further, it will overburden the hospital resources including the revenue spent on treating patients with COVID-19, the healthcare workers, and the equipment such as ventilators that are required to help patients get better. In such a case, the quality of care provided to COVID-19 patients may decrease as healthcare practitioners’ are overwhelmed as they try and meet all their needs, which leads to increased mortality rates (Bartsch et al., 2021).

Therefore, while the debate on COVID-19 vaccinations continues, research has shown that the benefits are significant for both the individual and the US. However, even as more people are vaccinated and the restrictions are lifted, practicing safety measures such as washing hands regularly is still important to help prevent reinfection as well as help eradicate COVID-19.

 

                                                               References

Bartsch, M. S., O\\\’Shea, J. K.,  Wedlock, T. P., Strych, U., Ferguson, C. M., Bottazzi, E.

M.,Randall, L.S., Siegmund, S.S., Cox, N.S., Hotez, J.P. & Lee, Y. B. (2021). The

Benefits of Vaccinating With the First Available COVID-19 Coronavirus Vaccine.  The

American Journal of Preventive Medicine;

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2021.01.001

Bunch, L. (2021). A Tale of Two Crises: Addressing Covid-19 Vaccine Hesitancy as Promoting

Racial Justice. HEC Forum; 33: 143–154. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10730-021-09440-0

Burki, T.  (2020). The online anti-vaccine movement in the age of COVID-19. Lancet;2 (10):

504-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30227-2

CDC, (2021). Different COVID-19 Vaccines. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-

ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines.html

Hasan, T.,  Beardsley, J., Marais, J. B., Nguyen, A.. T., & Fox, J. G. (2021). The Implementation

of Mass-Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review of Existing Strategies

and Guidelines. Vaccines; 9, 326. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040326

Islam, S., Kamal, M. A., Kabir, A., Southern, L. D., Khan, H. S., Hasan, M. M. S., Sarkar, R.,

Sharmin, S.,  Das, S., Roy, T., Harun, D. G.,  Chughtai, A. A., Homaira, N. & Seale, H.

(2021). COVID-19 vaccine rumors and conspiracy theories: The need for cognitive

inoculation against misinformation to improve vaccine adherence. PLOS One.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251605

Moghadas, M. S., Vilches, N. T., Zhang, K., Wells, R. C., Shoukat, A., Singer, H., B., Meyers,

A. L., Neuzil, M. K., Langley, M.J., Fitzpatrick, C.M. & Galvani, P. A. (2020).

https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.27.20240051

WHO (2021). The effects of virus variants on COVID-19 vaccines. https://www.who.int/news-

room/feature-stories/detail/the-effects-of-virus-variants-on-covid-19-vaccines

 

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