A 54-year-old man with a long-standing diagnosis of essential hypertension is meeting with his physician. The patient’s physician would anticipate that which of the following phenomena is most likely occurring?


A. Epinephrine from his adrenal gland is initiating the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system.

B. Vasopressin is exerting an effect on his chemoreceptors and baroreceptors resulting in vasoconstriction.

C. The patient’s juxtaglomerular cells are releasing aldosterone as a result of sympathetic stimulation.

D. The conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in his lungs causes increases in blood pressure and sodium reabsorption.

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