summer 2023 week 15 case study



Week 15 Case Study Analysis

For this assignment, you will apply what you have learned during the course to develop and present a case and treatment plan for a fictional or real client encountered in clinical practice. Your case analysis will be completed in three sections totaling five to seven pages (excluding title page and references) and will be graded using the case study grading rubric.

Part A: Clinical Assessment

  1. Record your client assessment, diagnosis (medical and psychiatric differentials), medical and psychiatric history and psychosocial factors that impact the case. This information should be presented in the same format as your Wheeler (2014) textbook’s Sample Clinical Assessment Form, found on pages 143–145.
  2. Conclude Part A with a one-page description of this fictional patient, including all the relevant information outlined in the clinical assessment form as well as relevant and realistic information acquired from your research. Refer to the APA Clinical Practice Guidelines.

Part B: Therapy Session

You will design a therapy session for your client based on his or her preceding clinical assessment. Part B of your assignment will be assessed on your demonstration of proper therapeutic communication. The empathy demonstrated should be consistent with the following operational definition: Empathy is a critical tool for establishing a trusting therapeutic relationship. Rather than parrot back what your client has said, good empathy reflects the thoughts and feelings of your client and notes the importance of what has been communicated. In doing so, it invites the client to self-explore. Empathic feedback avoids “why” questions. When appropriately relayed in a tentative manner, good therapeutic empathy also gives the client a chance to redirect or correct what the counselor has said.


For Part B, you can choose to either video a 10-minute therapy session with your client or write out your therapy session in a transcript. You can have someone off camera speak the lines of your “client” if you choose to do this part of the assignment as a video. It is your choice whether to provide a video of your therapy session or a written transcript.

Your session transcript should:

  • Use your personal experiences to replicate realistic patient responses as well as clinical responses.
  • Be a written transcript of more than 2,100 words (at least 15 minutes in length).
  • Evidence empathic feedback that adheres to the operational definition of empathy in the counselor’s responses to most of the client’s remarks.


Part C: Therapeutic Intervention

Much of the information you learn through your research can help inform the development of your patient. Research evidence-based interventions involving both psychopharmacological and nonpharmacological services to individuals who have been assessed in a mental health setting.

There should be three to five evidence-based articles and interventions that encompass both medication and non-medication modalities. Be sure to include two different therapeutic approaches when discussing non-medication interventions. For example, when selecting therapeutic approaches, you can select client-centered and cognitive behavioral therapy.




NOTE: Please change the name, DOB, and some other information.

NOTE: the turnintin should be less than 5%.









Week 15 Case Study Analysis


Part A-1: Clinical Assessment


Date: August 2nd, 2023

Time: 8AM 

Name of Client: J.J.

DOB: 11/12/1990

Gender: Female Marital status: Married

Children: one Race ethnicity: Hispanic-Latino

Religious preference: Baptist

Occupation: self-employed

Referral Source: Client referred by a physician

Source and Reliability: client reported information

Chief Compliant: I cannot really focus on what to do at home, I always feel anxious to the point that it hinders my activities of daily living. It is such a struggle since I have been diagnosed with anxiety and depression since January this year.

HPI; In our case, J.J. is a 32-year-old Maryland resident of African American descent. J.J. portrays a variety of symptoms, such as anxiety, fear, worry, and depression. Despite showing signs of anxiety throughout the interview, J.J. behaved cooperatively and frequently fiddled with her hair while speaking. Since the summer of 2022, her anxiety and depressive symptoms have gotten worse, and she now reports that these symptoms are getting worse..

It is stated that she has experienced sadness and anxiety at various times during her life, but she has generally been able to manage the illnesses and has never felt the need to seek medical help despite her worry and depression. However, since the summer of 2022, the intensity of the symptoms has increased. P.K. saw her neighbors being robbed for the second time in the summer of 2022, and ever then, she has struggled with uncontrollable anxiety. She has been telling how, in addition to feeling miserable and under a lot of stress, she has also been having a lot of anxiety, trembling, and panic episodes. In her statement, she says, “I felt like I was about to crumble.”

She claims that during the past few months, her symptoms have gotten worse and have caused her to feel anxious and unhappy more frequently. According to reports, the patient is continuously afraid that she may experience a catastrophic event in the future. She also reports that she has lost interest in activities that she once found enjoyable, such as baking, running, hiking, spending time with friends and family, and so on.

Other times, she feels hopeless, struggles with concentration, and tries to go out with friends or family, but is instead preoccupied with whether someone is going to break into her house, or when she starts to drive somewhere, she turns around and double-checks the locks before leaving. People close to her have characterized her as quiet and different from how she used to be. She can wait anywhere from a few minutes to over an hour before she starts having panic episodes. Her everyday convenience is hampered by the fact that she frequently finds herself checking the locks on her house’s windows and doors. According to the patient, there have been sleeping disturbances.

The patient has experienced anxiety and fear problems in the past that have been so severe that they have interfered with her day-to-day functioning. The patient is not aware of having received a formal diagnosis of any mental health problems. I am not aware of any difficulties the patient has had when it comes to social interaction. She disputes that she has suicidal and self-harming thoughts and inclinations. The patient is married and has a son who lives at home with her and her husband. Neither her mother nor her father have any mental illnesses or physical conditions that can be linked to them. She is in good physical and mental condition, and both of her siblings are as well. She has admitted to having problems with drinking and other drugs. She also rejects the idea of having allergies.

Stressors: The patient has been dealing with stressors in her life since witnessing her neighbor’s home being broken into, and it is now very challenging for her to go about her daily activities without feeling afraid of it. She is constantly anxious about someone breaking into her house because she worries about it all the time. She finds it difficult to enjoy her daily activities due to her high level of anxiety, and she also has trouble falling asleep. She experiences mood swings and is constantly concerned that something negative will have an adverse effect on her.

Medical History: No previous medical conditions or issues. Only when giving delivery have I been hospitalized. No operations.

Medication History: Client only take several vitamins every day; She does not take any prescription or over-the-counter drugs.

Allergies: No known allergies

Psychiatric history: There are no mental justifications for the patient’s hospital admission. She hasn’t had any therapeutic or mental counseling sessions in the last few years. Additionally, she has not had counseling or used any mental drugs during this time. The patient never attempted suicide or overdosed at any point in time throughout their lives. The patient hasn’t made any attempts to kill, hurt, or harm someone else or use violence against them. Additionally, none of her experiences have resulted in any physical assault for her.


Family history:

JJ’s 65-year-old father has no history of illness either before or at the time of JJ’s birth. Age group of Mother, 63, is not impacted by a medical issue. Her mother smoked when she was a young adult, but she doesn’t now because she is no longer addicted to it. Her family has never had a member with a psychological disorder. Neither of her parents is thought to have a history of mental or physical disease. Her two older brothers do not appear to have mental diseases linked to psychiatric issues based on their reports. JJ’s grandparents, cousins, uncles, and aunts, as well as her own extended family, have no histories of mental illness or psychiatric treatment. No one in the family abuses alcohol or drugs, and there haven’t been any suicide attempts either. Additionally, it has been noted that no trauma or legal difficulties have ever occurred.

Developmental Social History:

She spent the majority of his life in Maryland, where she was born. She had two parents, two older brothers, and two grandparents in her childhood. She had a pretty pleasant upbringing and never reported experiencing any verbal or physical abuse. She has been tremendously lucky to have her parents’ and her brothers’ support throughout her life. She has finished both her high school and her college education. She currently resides with her husband, whom she met in college and with whom she had a brief relationship before they got married two years ago. In addition to having a child live with her, she also has a partner. It’s crucial to note that she had a healthy pregnancy and was only ever admitted to the hospital once in her life—during her pregnancy. The family of JJ’s husband includes a finance expert. The patient didn’t report any substantial worries or delays.

Substance use: denied any use of cocaine, alcohol, LSD, barbiturates, sedatives. Reports she used to drink coffee once a day but when her anxiety sets in, she stopped drinking regular coffee and switched to decaffeinated instead. Denied use of herbal medication.   Takes multivitamin once daily.

Firearms: denied any access to firearms.

Vital signs: Weight 55 kg, height 5’5’’, pulse rate: 84 beats per minute

Temperature: 36.9 degrees C, Sp02 95% Blood pressure: 120/80 mmHg (Standing)

Lab test: within normal limits

Urine toxicology: negative

Drug toxicology: negative

Despite the possibility of IV drug use or trauma, the skin of the patient appears intact, dry, and warm. A pallor, petechiae, ecchymoses, or petechial rashes have not been observed. It should be noted that the pattern and thickness of the patient’s hair are representative of his or her age. It appears that the patient’s mouth is discolored due to the charcoal that was associated with gastric lavage. PERRLA. It was noted that there were no nystagmus or lags, and an ocular motor test was done and showed normal findings. The conjunctiva is pink with no discharge coming from it. I do not have any hoarseness in my throat or mouth at all. The tonsils had no exudate, the mucosa appeared clear, and there were no injections made in the oropharynx. Standard color tongues are symmetrical and come in a variety of colors. As far as ulcerations and swellings are concerned, there are none. There is no unusual odor coming from the room. Reflexes associated with gag are intact. Unlike other parts of the body, the nails do not peel, pit, or ridge. It was noted that the head was normalocephalic, there were no lesions, scare rashes or deformities on the head, there were no lumps, masses or edema on the head. There are no signs of abnormality in the gait or stance of the individual. The Quincke’s Test has been observed to result in blanching of the skin. Test Capillary Refill-Toes: Normal. Refill of the capillaries on the fingers of the test subject is normal. As far as the nose and ears are concerned, no discharge or deformities were noted – no involuntary movements were noted either. Having 2+ reflexes for Achilles tendons, patella, brachioradialis, biceps, and triceps is out of the ordinary. The Babinski reflex can be used to demonstrate the normal plantar reflex.

Mental Status exam:

She appears to be a 32-year-old woman who is almost the same age as she claims to be. She has short, black hair on her head. It has the impression of being clean and organized. The patient is dressed correctly for the patient’s age and the season. Respond to the questions posed. The person seems to be a regular weight. She is cooperative, but she also seems to make good eye contact, earning her an AAO x 4 rating.


He is sitting, being cooperative, and making normal eye contact.


No tics, tremors, or other aberrant movements are seen in terms of psychomotor function.


Speech has reduced intonation, mild speaking dormancy, spontaneous speech, a normal tempo, and clear, understandable speech.

My mood has a depressive aura

Affect: “anxious”

Thought process: liner and logical most times, repeats things

Thought content: Denies AVH and H.I. Patient does not portray any internal preoccupation, little rumination. She appears to have some obsessive thoughts

Insight: Fair

Judgment: fair

Cognition: Alert and oriented to person, place, time, and situation

Attention is intact. Able to follow complex commands, naming and visuospatial intact, little rumination, and repetition intact.

Mini-Mental exam 30/30 PHQ-9 score: 7 (Mild depression) GAD-7 score = 14(moderate anxiety)


She was brought in for a psychiatric violation after being referred by her primary care physician due to increased anxiety, fear, and depression that were interfering with her day-to-day activities. She has been having panic attacks, feels anxious all the time, and describes herself as depressed in addition to feeling fearful all the time. The patient has mentioned having trouble sleeping.

Diagnosis/Differential diagnosis:

1.     Anxiety disorder F41. 9:

2.     Mild depression F32.0

3.     Post-traumatic stress disorder F43.10

4.     Obsessive-compulsive disorder F42.0


Determine and evaluate any potential risk factors for injuries. It’s crucial to inform people about the various diagnosis and treatments. The patient needs to be prescribed 50 mg of sertraline once per day. You should explain to the patient that Sertraline, despite being advertised as a mild antidepressant, can also be used to treat anxiety, phobias, panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression. The patient should receive education to help him or her avoid potential negative effects. Some side effects you can encounter during or after treatment include trouble sleeping, nausea, diarrhea, sleepiness, and dizziness. If any of these symptoms persist or worsen, call your healthcare professionals immediately once. Encourage the patient to use strategies like deep breathing exercises and meditation, which can lower anxiety levels, to help the patient lessen their anxiety. As part of their treatment strategy, the patient may receive free psychotherapy, such as CBT. Psychotherapy has been demonstrated to be effective in symptom reduction when used in conjunction with pharmaceutical therapy. While the medication adjustment is followed up every two weeks, therapy sessions are followed up weekly.

Part A2 description of the patient

In this particular case study, the patient is a 32-year-old African-American lady. In addition to the fact that she is married, it is notable that she is a parent. Her parents have never been given a mental disorder diagnosis or had any previous health problems. Both the mother and the father are still alive and well. Right now, she doesn’t have any siblings. It’s critical to remember that JJ has two healthy siblings and is free of any mental health problems. He also has two healthy siblings. She has denied having any substance addiction or alcohol usage concerns, despite allegations to the contrary. Additionally, she disputes the idea that she has any allergies. As a result of the patient’s experiences with anxiety and fear, it has been challenging for them to reach their full potential in terms of living a healthy life. Despite leading a healthy life up to this point, the patient just learned that she had mental health issues that need continuing care. According to reports, JJ exhibits a wide range of concern, dread, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Even though JJ is cooperative and frequently fiddles with her hair throughout the interview, it is clear that she is experiencing nervousness. Since the summer of 2022, her depressive and anxiety symptoms have been worse, and she says she has found it difficult to manage them.

She has undoubtedly struggled with anxiety and depression throughout her life, but she has always been able to manage it and has never felt the need to get help. She has always been anxious and has experienced depression at different points in her life. However, the intensity of the symptoms has increased since the summer of 2022. She claims that since one of her neighbors was robbed in the summer of 2022, her anxiety has increased, making her feel scared, apprehensive, and anxious all the time. She also claims that this has made her feel depressed.

She claims that the symptoms have gotten worse over the past three months, along with her levels of anxiety and depression. The patient claims that she worries continuously about the possibility of something dreadful occurring to her. Additionally, JJ talks of losing interest in activities she once found enjoyable, like baking, running, hiking, and spending time with friends and family. She often worries about someone breaking into her house whenever she is depressed, has trouble focusing, or attempts to go out with friends or family. When she starts to drive somewhere, she does a U-turn and goes back to double-check the locks. She frequently has to check the locks on the doors and windows, which again interferes with her day-to-day activities. A patient has mentioned that their sleep was disturbed.

Part B Therapy Session

Therapist: Good morning, Ms. Parker. It has been a pleasure meeting with you today and I thank you very much.

JJ: I would like to wish you a good morning as well.

Therapist: Before we begin, I’d like to discuss with you a bit about confidentiality and our relationship as a therapist before we get started. Could you please let me know if that is okay with you?

JJ: Yes please

Therapist: Let me begin by informing you that any information you share with me during each session of therapy is completely confidential and will not be shared with anyone else.

JJ: That’s comforting to hear

Therapist: Under specific conditions, such as if you tell me you intend to harm yourself or someone else, I might need to violate confidentiality. Finally, I will have to provide your information if I am ordered to do so by a court of law and if the information you share has anything to do with or implies that you were involved in a crime. In such circumstances, it’s possible that I’ll have to divulge what we talked about to others.

JJ: Oh I see understood.

Therapist:  Feel free to ask any questions or concerns you may have concerning matters of confidentiality if you have any. Is there anything you would like to share?

JJ: nothing at the moment

Therapist: That’s great, that’s great to hear. Thank you very much once again for taking the time to meet with me and for taking the time to talk to me. I am delighted to meet you for the first time. In the past couple of days, I have received a report concerning the overall state of your health from your primary health care provider. Please let me know if that is fine with you and if you have any comments or suggestions.

JJ: Yes. The general feeling that I’ve had hasn’t been good, so yes, I’ve not been feeling so great.

Therapist: Please tell me more

JJ: Over the last few days, I’ve been feeling incredibly anxious; I’ve been feeling restless and nervous all the time as if I’m anticipating something terrible about to happen to me. My frustration and anger over small matters also causes me to get frustrated and angry at times. When I am sad and sad, I feel like I want to be alone all the time, and sometimes I just don’t want to be alone anymore.

Therapist: It must have been an overwhelming experience for you to have to deal with all these things.

JJ: Yes, I believe it is; although I don’t want it to continue, as it has a detrimental effect on so many aspects of my life, including the health of myself.

Therapist: I completely understand your point of view. In order to accomplish this, I would like us to go step by step so that we can look for where the problem started and then move forward so that we can help you overcome all of them. What do you think about that? Would you mind if I did that?

JJ: Yes, that’s fine

Therapist: As you have said, you have been feeling very anxious recently, which has resulted in feelings of restlessness and nervousness, which is a result of having been feeling overly anxious. Moreover, you have also mentioned that you feel as though you are going to face something horrible in the near future.

JJ: Yes

Therapist: I was wondering if you could tell me a little bit more about this feeling in particular. How long has it been going on?

JJ: I understand. Recently, my neighbor’s home was robbed, and I am still very upset about it. At the time of the incident, neither of them was at home, but my wife and I were with my son that day. I didn’t pay much attention until I heard a commotion because I assumed the neighbors’ kids were inside the house playing at the time.

Therapist: Could you tell me if that made you feel anything at all?

JJ: Honestly, I don’t know how to deal with my neighbor’s four kids, as they are very playful and loud all the time.

Therapist: Please proceed,

JJ: In the middle of the day as I sat on my front porch with my son, I saw two guys wearing ski masks come out of the front door of my neighbor. It was as if I froze for that moment, and then I hurried into the house and got my son inside, locked the windows and doors, and called 911 as quickly as I could. Just in time for the two men to be arrested, the police arrived and arrested them. However, since then, I have repeatedly relived the events of the day, and I am experiencing a great deal of anxiety over them. It was a scary experience since I was in a situation like this for the first time in my life.

Therapist: In light of the fact that you were in a scary situation, that is understandable. It will be a completely new situation for you. I can tell that the whole situation has affected you so much that it has affected you so much emotionally.

JJ: Yes, it has.

Therapist: As a policeman approached your neighbor’s house to inquire about the two men, I was curious to learn how you felt as you saw them exiting his home.

JJ: There were a lot of horrible things happening. Immediately, I began having difficulty breathing because my heart started pounding and racing, and I began feeling dizzy and dizzy. As I was bringing my son into the house, I found myself trembling with fear. It was not the first time he had seen the men. He kept asking me, “Mommy, what’s wrong? What’s wrong?” but I was unable to answer him. It was hard for me to speak because my throat was sore. There was also a lot of sweat coming from me.

Therapist: It is so painful to read about what you have gone through; I cannot even begin to imagine how you felt. As you were explaining how the police were able to arrest the suspects in time, I noticed some sort of relief in your words.

JJ: Yes, of course. That’s right, that’s what I meant. In my mind, I have replayed that day numerous times, and from time to time, I have asked myself if the police hadn’t arrived in time, what would have happened? Are the two men going to proceed to come and rob me in my house if they come to my home? Was my son at risk of being harmed by them? As I mentioned earlier, these are the kinds of questions that I have still not been able to answer to this day.

Therapist: It is understandable. In the same way or even worse, many people would feel the same way if they found themselves in such a situation. It can be very stressful to witness a crime, especially if you have been there before.

JJ: Definitely agree.

Therapist: Would you mind telling me how you have been doing since then?

JJ: Well, I must say that the last few weeks have been really challenging. However, I cannot say that I have coped well with the change in my life in that nowadays, any slight commotions around me startle me. There is also a lack of self-confidence in me now.

Therapist: Yes, that’s right. Can you tell me more about your feelings, especially after the incident, and how you feel differently now?

JJ: The restlessness and nervousness I feel all the time makes me feel uneasy and restless. There are times when I feel exactly like I used to feel when I was a child, you know, when my heart rate rises, when I feel short of breath, when I sweat, sometimes I feel like I am having a panic attack. The loudness and screaming he makes in the house when he is playing around the house also makes me sell my son a lot. There are times when I get angry at my husband as well, for example, when the television is too loud or when he is loud when watching football. It is not uncommon for me to just want to be left alone with my thoughts.

Therapist: Can you tell me if the whole incident has affected your relationship with your husband and son as a result of what has happened?

JJ: Yes

Therapist: You are right to assume that going through what you went through triggered certain reactions to certain events that you might ordinarily perceive as normal after going through what you were going through.

JJ: That’s right. There is no doubt in my mind that you are right. When my son was playing sports and when my husband was watching sports, I was not bothered by either of them. As of late, I have become more easily irritable, angered, and frustrated over the tiniest of things, and it has become harder for me to cope.

Therapist: Have you noticed any other changes in your daily routine and close relationships since the incident? Have you noticed any other changes in your life since the incident?

JJ: I started actively checking the locks inside the house a few weeks ago, so yes, I did.

Therapist: can you elaborate?

JJ: It took me a while to realize that it was not normal. It wasn’t until I started thinking about checking the locks every time that it became a habit. I became obsessed with it over the course of time.

Therapist: So, ever since the incident, you have been obsessively checking whether the house is locked or not, haven’t you?

JJ: Yes exactly

Therapist: Can you tell me more about that?

JJ: That’s right. I am a stay-at-home mom, so I am a stay-at-home mom. I go about preparing my husband for work at the beginning of the day and my son for school at the end of the day. Afterwards, I take my son to school, come home and do some house cleaning, and later on, I might go to the supermarket or the grocery store, come back to my house to pick up my son, or I might pick my son up directly from school after leaving the store. There are times when I attend church meetings during the week, and there are also times when I attend school meetings. During some of my husband’s lunch breaks, I have also been known to eat lunch with him. Additionally, I have a few friends who I meet from time to time that I keep in touch with.

Therapist: There seems to be quite a bit of activity in your life. It is an excellent thing for you to do that. It would be helpful if you continued.

JJ: Thanks a lot. I really appreciate it. Since the incident happened, I have been locking myself inside my house all the time since then, and I keep checking even after previously checking the house a few other times to make sure the door is still locked. I am always doubtful as to whether I have locked the house when I go out of it, to the point where I force myself to turn around and drive all the way back home just to be sure that I have locked the doors.

Therapist: Can you tell me how often this happens?

JJ: I can’t keep track of how many times I have seen this. My relationship with my friends has really been affected by this.

Therapist: How so?

JJ: There have been times in the past that I have always been the one who was fun, but now I seem to just be standing around doing nothing all the time. I’m always spoiling things when I want to leave earlier or in the middle of our time out to go check the locks at home, so I’m always spoiling the fun. As a result of checking the locks on the locks, I’m often late arriving for lunch with my husband, which means I miss out on lunch with him since I had to turn around to check the locks, which means I miss out on lunch with him. My heart breaks when I see this all happening because it is so sad and upsetting to me.

Therapist: The whole thing has obviously had a negative impact on you, and I can understand why. Clearly, I am aware of the changes that have taken place in your life over the past few months, and I understand exactly why you are upset about it. What happened to you and your husband? Do your friends and family know what happened to you?

JJ: Yes. Having the ability to eat healthy foods, be active, and go out when I want to is something I want to get back to, I want to be able to go back to my everyday life. My goal is to reestablish relationships with my husband, my son, and my friends, so that I can live with them again. My general goal is to get back to 100 percent mental health as soon as possible.

Therapist: That makes sense to me. Therefore, you want to make sure you are okay and happy compared to the way you have been feeling recently. In addition, you would like to rebuild your once active social life, as well as your relationships with friends and your family, your husband, and your son.

JJ: Yes

Therapist: The first thing I will do is prescribe an antidepressant, Sertraline 50 mg, which will help to alleviate the anxiety, panic attacks, depressive episodes, OCD, and PTSD that you are experiencing, as well as help to combat the anxiety. Besides these side effects, the drug also causes some other side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, heartburn, sweating, dry mouth, and drowsiness (Estrela et al., 2020). Please let me know if you have experienced any of these so that we will be able to determine whether you should continue to take it or stop taking it. Is that okay.

JJ: Yes

Therapist: Whenever you begin to feel anxious and restless, I would also advise you to try deep breathing as soon as you feel those feelings. It is important, for example, to take a break from whatever you are doing if there is a commotion around you, place your right hand over your chest and take a deep breath before slowly exhaling it. This should be repeated four or five times, until you feel calm and relaxed. You should also tell yourself at least once a day that everything is going to be okay. Is that something you can try?

JJ: Yes

Therapist: It is also recommended to take some time out throughout the day to meditate as this will help you feel a bit calmer through the day. A form of meditation, such as mindfulness, will help you become more present rather than spend most of your time inside your head, which is where most of your irrational thoughts reside (Behan, 2020). Remember that thoughts are not facts, and there are times when our thoughts can misinform us about the reality of a situation, thus triggering maladaptive responses. It might be a good idea to take five minutes during the day to sit quietly in a quiet area and think about what you are thinking. In addition, it is also beneficial to practice deep breathing when you are meditating.

JJ: Okay I understand. I will do that.

Therapist: Please take the time to write down how you feel before and after you apply these techniques, as well as how you feel afterwards. I will then bring them up during our next meeting so that we can discuss them together.

Therapist: After we have discussed your therapeutic goals with you, we will begin incorporating more non-pharmacological interventions and treatments that will assist you in achieving the goals that we have set together during our subsequent sessions.

JJ: Thank you so much for all your help.

















Behan, C. (2020). The benefits of meditation and mindfulness practices during times of crisis such as COVID-19. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine,37(4), 256-258. doi:10.1017/ipm.2020.38

Estrela, M., Herdeiro, M. T., Ferreira, P. L., & Roque, F. (2020). The Use of Antidepressants, Anxiolytics, Sedatives and Hypnotics in Europe: Focusing on Mental Health Care in Portugal and Prescribing in Older Patients. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(22).




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