There is much controversy that surrounds the etiology of addictions. Some theories suggest that addiction is related solely to genetic factors, while others identify environmental factors as the primary influences on addictive behavior. Most contemporary theories support the idea that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to substance addiction. However, there is still much debate about this in the field.

Use the module readings and the Argosy University online library resources to research chemical substance addiction.

Select a category of chemical substances with addiction potential (for example, alcohol, stimulants, or opiates). In this assignment, you will examine this selected substance in detail.

  • How might a person become addicted to that category of chemical substance? Describe the process.
  • What are the various genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of substance addiction as related to that category?

Support your responses using your readings and authoritative resources. Incorporate theory and factual information in your response such as examples of research findings related to addiction.

Write your initial response in 2–3 paragraphs. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

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Denial is one of the most challenging defense mechanisms used by individuals with addictions. This term has been familiar to the substance abuse treatment nomenclature for many decades. It applies when a substance abuser denies the existence or severity of his or her problem. Treatment for clients in denial is typically challenging. In these cases, the focus of intervention is on helping the client acknowledge the problem. The only way treatment will be successful is if the client recognizes the existence or extent of the substance abuse.

The contemporary perspective is that denial occurs in the “pre-contemplative” stage of the change process (Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992). The denial of clients in this stage is not confronted as it was in older forms of treatment. It is viewed as a necessary beginning on the journey to sobriety. Addressing the denial requires encouraging the client to identify the ill effects as well as the perceived benefits of his or her substance abuse. The client in this stage will attempt to work toward finding internal motivation to change based on the insight gained about the effects of his or her use pattern.  

Use the module readings and the Argosy University online library resources to research denial used as a defense mechanism.

Download and review the case study.

Respond to the following:

  • How is the use of denial by the substance-abusing client evident in the case?
  • What other ways might substance-abusing individuals display denial?
  • What approaches could you use to work with the client in the case study?

Support your responses using your module readings and authoritative resources. Incorporate theory and factual information in your response.

Write your initial response in 2–3 paragraphs. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

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