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Sandbu, Chapter Nine Answers

Question one

Countries have continuously joined the United Nations intending to ensure human beings’ rights are strengthened globally. Human beings’ morals are now not overly being relied upon with the establishment of the standard human rights. The moral conduct of individuals is essential in any society, and the moral conduct materials are still important despite the formulation of the standard human rights. Moral right violations can easily be combated by referring to the documents. Also, new laws pertaining to the protection of individuals’ moral values can be formulated to help strengthen the human rights laws. Therefore, the declaration of human rights laws or other moral conduct must incorporate the moral right law for it to be justified. If the laws do not incorporate the moral rights, the laws might be insufficient to be used in the society.

According to the law, individuals have the right to periodic holidays accompanied by payment. Nonetheless, the law is not clear about who should pay people to stay at home and not be productive. The law should stipulate who is responsible for ensuring the people get their rights to a paid holiday. Also, it should clearly state who will make the payments to the individuals. Human rights make provisions that allow for the well-being of human beings. Individuals need to rest periodically and still be able to meet their basic needs. Nonetheless, morally people would desire to hand over such privileges to their employees. The desire is there, but the capability to do the act might not be there. Employers can barely pay their employees’ decent wages for their work, let alone pay them for staying at home on holiday. Therefore, moral duty is different for the different individuals and is also dependent on their capability to pay. Some of the human rights laws may consequently not be rights but merely privileges that an individual can receive from their employer. It is one thing to demand an employer to execute these rights to their employees, but it is also morally wrong if the employer cannot meet such costs.

Question Two

The Asian values were defended in the 1990s where people started believing that the Universal Rights of human beings provided by the UN may not be universal after all. The rights are applicable in the Western society, where the country has developed. Nonetheless, the Asian government use of morals may be wrong as some of the moral rights are debatable. For Example, the moral right to torture people may be permissive in Asia but humanly wrong. Countries need to have uniformity in the common rights that have been justified to be good for the well-being of their people and the safety of foreign visitors and industries.

Question Three

In the Utilitarian tradition, rights are applied using the moral values of the society. The determination of right or wrong is based upon the need to achieve happiness for the majority of people. Hence, the moral value that derives happiness for the majority of people is taken up as a right. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill also believed that morally right laws shows promote pleasure and happiness. John believed that rights need to be formulated to benefit the people, hence the promotion of liberty.

Question Four

It is essential to note that if a justifiable treatment of human beings can be found, it is crucial to apply it to everyone. Nonetheless, the moral justification of the rights needs to be evaluated. If a moral right can be granted without causing any form of damage to other people, then they ought to be allowed to practice it. The moral duty of any nation should be to improve its people’s livelihood through the adaptation of justifiable moral responsibilities. The notion of free will and consent is applied as well; the individuals have the right to choose what they desire. Nonetheless, the harmony of the society should not be compromised.

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