PS71054D RESEARCH DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
Section A. Quantitative Research
Ontology, epistemology, axiology, and methodology are the four branches of philosophy that make up the quantitative method’s philosophical basis. In a similar manner, axiology refers to the function that values play in research, while methodology merely refers to the act of doing research. The nature of reality is characterized by ontology. Ontology, which is a person’s set of beliefs about how the world works, shows how that person sees what makes up reality. The study of epistemology focuses on the definition of knowledge as well as the justification of claims to knowing. The quantitative paradigm is based on the positivist theory of knowledge, which is made up of a number of key ideas about how we know.
A). The correlational research method focuses on identifying correlations between variables. A quasi-experimental design is used in correlational research, a kind of study using the correlational approach. In this kind of research, different groups are compared, but the elements that explain causes and effects cannot be identified. A researcher analyzes two variables to understand and evaluate the statistical connection between them without the impact of any other variable that is not directly relevant to the study being conducted.
B). The study aims to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes of computer-assisted cognitive remediation programs in improving cognitive performance in a large group of schizophrenia patients.
It is claimed that functional outcome evaluations, processing speed, or nonverbal working memory are not substantially enhanced by cognitive rehabilitation.
C). When using a correlational study design, the researcher has no direct influence on any of the variables. The correlation technique is advantageous because it reveals the strength as well as direction of the association between the variables under study. The correlational technique provides little control, which implies that other factors may alter the connection. Since the objective of the study is to determine the causal relationships between variables, the correlational technique is suitable.
Non-maleficence, which means doing as little harm as possible to the participants, fidelity and trust in the fiduciary relationship between the researcher and the participants, autonomy in making informed, voluntary decisions, and confidentiality of personal information are the most important ethical principles at play in this study.
I would extend the quantitative study by adding constructs and variables. To extend the study by applying it to a new population or context/setting, I would add a new construct relating to the cognitive functions explored. I would major on concentration as a function.
Section B. Qualitative Research
In qualitative research, interpretive, humanistic, and naturalistic philosophies are the most prominent. Through qualitative research, it is able to investigate the meanings and patterns of people’s ideas and activities, as well as their inconsistencies and conflicts. In qualitative research, interpretation is one of the most often recurring themes. The majority of researchers agree that studying the meanings, beliefs, experiences, attitudes, and behaviors of others is a phase in the analytical process. In this, the subjective is given considerable weight. According to the ontological assumption, each event is surrounded by several realities as opposed to a single reality. Additionally, each individual perceives, comprehends, and interacts with a situation or event from their own unique viewpoint since each individual has a distinct perspective on reality. The fundamental assumption of epistemology is that knowledge is obtained by subjective observation, which is analogous to in-depth understanding and exhaustive elaboration.
A). For the purpose of examining, evaluating, and reporting on recurring patterns in a set of data, thematic analysis requires sifting through the data. In addition to being a method for conveying facts, the process of selecting codes and developing themes involves interpretation. The purpose of a thematic analysis is to identify themes—important or fascinating patterns in the data—and use them to answer the research question or comment on a subject.
B). This research set out to determine how a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention influenced and resonated with aspiring psychological therapists. The emphasis was on how the participants perceived the depth of their connections, how they developed their therapeutic abilities, and how they contributed to the therapeutic relationship by using themselves.
C). The researchers have been given a great deal of leeway in terms of how they might interpret the qualitative data that has been made available to them, which is one reason why thematic analysis is suitable. The researchers have been able to tackle big data sets in a more manageable manner by first classifying the data into overarching themes, which is another reason why thematic analysis is appropriate.
The ethical considerations relevant to the study are informed consent and confidentiality. Before participation, participants must thoroughly comprehend the research’s aims, funding structure, and relevant data. Additionally, confidentiality demands that even if the researchers know the identities of the study participants, no one else should access their personal data.
I believe that the research might be expanded by integrating a quantitative element in the design of the study. This would be an example of a sequential mixed methods design. First, I would conduct a qualitative research, and then, based on the results of that study, I would construct a quantitative study that could be applied to a large number of people.
Section C. Quantitative Research Study Proposal
A). The aim of the study is to want to find out how the Sport England-funded project impacts not just on fitness, but also on motivation, mental health and well-being. Several sports and fitness organizations in the London borough of Brent will receive money from Sport England as part of a brand-new programme that will run for six months. 90% of the lessons that low-income people pay for will be covered by them (for example, if an exercise session costs £10, they will pay £9 and the participant will pay £1).
The independent variable is the level of funding (in this case 90%) and the dependent variables are fitness, motivation, and mental health and well-being.
The hypotheses is that funding of sport projects has a positive impact on fitness, motivation, mental health, and well-being of participants.
B). Data gathering while employing the quantitative technique often entails the use of planned research instruments. The conclusions are supported by a larger sample size that was intended to be representative of the whole population. It is usually feasible to recreate or redo the study due to the high dependability of the investigation. Because quantitative research is more accepted, scientifically sound, objective, quick, and focused, it becomes suitable and the results may be generalized.
C). A thorough description of what participating in the research entails should be given to potential participants when seeking them out to participate in a study. A description of the complete research project should also be included. Convenience sampling will be used, a technique where sample units are randomly chosen from the population. I have chosen to employ a sample size of fifty people in order to gather enough information from which inferences may be derived.
D). Respondents will be questioned via closed-ended surveys. Additionally, demographic information may be gathered. Respondents will be required to rank things on a scale. Remote administration of these surveys is possible using the internet, mobile devices, or telephone. Surveys can gather information from many responders.
E). The data collected from the surveys will be examined using cross-tabulation. Since cross-tabulation employs a straightforward tabular format to infer relationships between various research study data sets, it is the recommended approach. It includes information that is either mutually exclusive or connected in some way.
The researcher must ensure that all results have been accurately presented. Additionally, voluntary participation is necessary. Participation must be entirely voluntarily and participants are not subjected to any kind of pressure or coercion in order to provide consent.
Prolonged engagement is a metric that applies in checking credibility of my research showing the continual presence throughout extended surveys with participants, spending enough time to get acquainted with the situation and context, check for false information, establish trust, and become acquainted with the data in order to obtain rich information.
Section D. Qualitative Research Study Proposal
A) The study’s objective is to determine the effects of the Sport England-funded experiment on motivation, mental health, and overall wellbeing in addition to fitness.
The research question is as follows: How does funding impact your motivation, mental health, and overall wellbeing and fitness?
B) Utilizing qualitative techniques is defined by three distinctive aspects of qualitative research. Contextual importance comes first, then meaning significance, and finally participant-researcher interaction. The use of a qualitative research technique is suitable for providing answers to questions about understanding, experience, meaning, and perspective, often from the perspective of the participant. It is used to learn about underlying assumptions, opinions, and motivations, to acquire understanding of the problem, or to come up with theories or suggestions for future quantitative research.
C) Flyers and adverts will be distributed in order to attract volunteers for the research. There will be information presented about the survey, as well as opportunities to participate. The tactic was selected because of how successful it is as well as how simple it is to implement. Because of the requirements of a qualitative research methodology, there will be a total of fifteen people recruited to take part in the study.
D) Open-ended surveys and questionnaires will be utilized to collect data. Instead of forcing respondents to choose from a predetermined list of options, open-ended surveys and questionnaires give them the freedom to respond anyway they want. Open-ended questions have the advantage of allowing respondents to express their views, which yields considerably richer, more in-depth, and often subjective data. Open-ended questions may be answered in a variety of ways, which implies there are several methods to gather data.
E) This study adopts a thematic data analysis technique. In a data set, thematic analysis seeks for patterns of significance. The purpose of a thematic analysis is to categorize sets of data based on themes or similar qualities. The themes enhance comprehension and interpretation of the information. Due to its theoretical adaptability, thematic analysis is a highly flexible approach that can be adapted to the needs of the study, providing a rich, nuanced, and complex description of data.
The two ethical criteria for my investigation are the potential for harm and informed consent. Any harm—physical, social, psychological, or otherwise—is kept to a bare minimum. Before they decide whether or not to participate, participants are aware of the study’s goals, advantages, risks, and financing.
Triangulation is a qualitative criterion that may be used to assess the credibility of my study. Triangulation refers to the use of many data sources, researchers, and data collection methods. Data triangulation will be explicitly used through the practice of using many sources of data spanning time, space, and individuals.