When evaluating the evidence for an intervention, both the level of certainty of the relationship between the intervention and its observed outcomes and the generalizability of the evidence to other individuals, settings, contexts, and time frames should be considered. It is essential that research evidences be scrutinized and critically appraised for transferability to clinical practice. Methods that can be used in evaluating research evidence is validity and reliability. They both indicate how well an instrument method or technique measures what it is supposed to measure. Reliability is about consistency and validity is about accuracy of a measure. Reliability involves the ability of the research method to produce consistent result when used in another circumstances and validity refers to how accurately a method measures what it is supposed to measure.

A research with high validity means that it produces result that corresponds to real properties and variations in the real situation (Schmidt, 2018).

Reliability and validity are important properties of a well-developed research study. Internal validity is a measure of how findings of a study truly reflect the reality and external validity involves the extent to which findings of a study can be generalized and applied to people similar to those used in the research study. Validity and reliability are two vital test of sound measurement and reliability of the instrument can be evaluated by identifying the proportion of systematic variation in the instrument. On the other hand, the validity of the instrument is assessed by determining the degree to which variation in observed scale score indicates actual variation among those being tested (Dunemn, Roehrs & Wilson, 2017).




Schmidt, M. (2018). Measurement, statistics, and appraisal. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.), Nursing research: Understanding methods for best practice. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs433v/nursing-research-understanding-methods-for-best-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/4


Dunemn, K., Roehrs, C. & Wilson, V. (2017). Critical appraisal and selection of data collection instruments: A step-by-step guide. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 7(3), 77–82. doi: 10.5430/jnep.v7n3p77



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