Religious Studies- TRS

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Religious Studies- TRS

Chapter 2 Questions:

Totem

According to the author, a totem is a living thing or an object like an animal, bird, or plant that a certain group views with a special reference awe, and respect. It can also be said to be a symbol, an expression through material of something. It is an object of worship.

Taboo

Something that is forbidden or should not be done

Polytheism

Believe in more than one Supreme Being. The religion believes in more than one god.

Animism

This is the belief that every nature has life and is filled with spirits that are unseen that may be placated and even worshipped. Followers of this belief see self or soul- existing in stones, trees, heavenly bodies and rivers.

Shaman

A term derived from the eastern Siberia language that refers to one who is possessed by spirits of gods and can even foretell the future.

Monotheism

This describes the belief in one god. Believers’ belief is that there is only one supreme god.

Monism

Describes the view that there is unity in any field of inquiry; it is opposed to pluralism and dualism.

Polytheistic monism

Describes the view that there is unity in any field of inquiry; it is opposed to pluralism and dualism.

Rites of passage

Any kind of ritual that is used to mark the passage of an individual from one stage of life to another; for example, puberty rites, circumcision, death rituals.

Chapter 2 Questions

Can you name the elements found in common when studying Native American religion?

There are numerous elements commonly found when studying the Native American religions. They include the spirit world, animism, sacrifice, taboos, ceremonies and rituals

Can you explain each of them?

In the Native American religion it is believed that all nature is made alive by the presence of spirits. In general Native Americans are polytheistic when it comes to religion; they believe that numerous god levels exist and also in the presence of spirits in the world.

Animism is used to describe the belief in the spirits that are in existence in nature; these spirits have the power to harm or help individuals. Native American religions, therefore, view the world, stones, trees, animals and land with a different view from other religions.

Sacrifice is also important in these religions as it is used to show thanks or to please the gods.

Taboos and applying them in everyday life is the way these religions protect themselves from potential danger from the spirits. Taboos are circumstances, actions, objects or persons who because of their dangerousness fall outside the normal way of life. Ceremonies and rituals are also essential in these religions together with taboos. Native Americans usually look for ways to control the spirit forces in the world through these rituals and ceremonies. They are used for renewal of the associations between humans and spirits as well as for worship.

Can you explain some of the problems in studying Native American religion and what cautions must be exercised when making conclusions about these religions and the elements they seem to have in common (i.e., why can’t we say that all native American people have all these elements in religion?

One of the main problems when it comes to studying the Native American religions is discrimination and racism as well as modernism. Because of the past history some generalizations about these individuals must be avoided as they can be taken as elements of discrimination or racism. Some Native Americans have also modernized and adopted other religions with some elements of their cultures still present. Care should be taken not to generalize all people.

Chapter 3 Vocabulary

Ancestor veneration

This can be defined as the veneration of a member of family who has passed away. This process frequently involves care of and upkeep of graves, name memorization of people from the past, sacrifices and prayers to honor those who have passed on.

Orisha

This is used in African mythologies that are used to describe lesser deities who participated in the world’s creation.

Chapter 3 Questions

Can you name the elements found in common among African native religions?

There are a few elements related to African religions like high God, lesser spirits, ancestors, rites of passage, sacrifice, and religious leaders.

Can you explain them?

The high God in African religions is extremely essential. Hey believe that there is one Supreme Being in control of all forces. They also believe that there were lesser spirits who were involved in the creation story. Ancestors form a big part of the religion as well. They believe that the departed have power to help and control them. Rites of passage are also valued in the religion; they mark the passage of an individual from one stage of life to another. Sacrifice is used to appease gods and to ask them for more blessings or help. Religious leaders are highly respected and they are regarded as the closest connections to gods and spirits.

Can you explain some of the problems in studying African native religions and what cautions must be exercised when making conclusions about these religions and the elements they seem to have in common?

Just like in Native American religions, studying African religions can also have several problems which also have to do with discrimination, racism and modernization issues. Because of the history, studying African religions has to be done carefully so as to avoid looking discriminatory or racist. Influence from colonizers has also affected African religions and caused many to modernize. Therefore, generalizations should not be made.

Chapter 4 Vocabulary

Mohenjo- daro and Harappa

A term used to describe the religious events and rituals of Hinduism.

Aryans; monism

Aryan is a Sanskrit term that is used to mean those who are noble and it is applied to migrants who migrated from Persia to the Indus valley in BCE, the second millennium.

Brahaman

The term used by Upanishads to show and define their impersonal god who is taken as the total reality.

Atman

Souls

Maya

This is a term used to define false knowledge used by Upanishads. It describes all that which is not Brahman, all individuality, all perception.

Samsara

The term is used in Buddhism and Upanishads to describe the continuous cycle of life, death, birth and rebirth that all humans experience.

Karma

In Indian culture this word is used to mean that which connects or binds one to the continuous life cycles like rebirth and death.

Dharma

This is a term used to describe duties given to a person in the traditional life of Hindus, and is based on station and caste in life; the teachings of Buddha in Buddhism.

Brahma

A term used in the Indian society to mean one of the three significant gods in the worship of the Hindu. The god is seen as the world’s creator.

Vishnu

It is a term used in Hinduism used to describe one of the most popular deities in postclassical Hindu, called the god of love.

Shiva

This term describes the most popular god in the period of postclassical Hinduism that regarded the god of destruction and death but also of reproduction and rebirth.

Avatar

This can be used to mean the deity’s incarnation. In Hinduism, a god named Vishnu is believed to have often assumed other forms in life like human form and other types of forms.

Vedas

A collection of Aryan gods’ hymns; the entire collection of the sacred literature of Indians

Upanishads

Vedic literature philosophical material

Bhagavad gita

This is a poem in the religion and culture of Indians called the song of the blessed lord.

Krishna

This term is used to refer to the incarnation of Vishnu, who is a god in Hinduism who appears as a key contributor and participator in Bhagavad Gita.

Arjuna

This is a term used to describe a god. It is a name given to a key character in the event of Bhagavad Gita.

Trimurti

This describes the three most significant gods in Hindu; Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu.

Yoga

A philosophical system used to teach a world view that is dualistic in postclassical Hinduism.

Moksha

It describes the process of releasing individuals from the death cycle and also rebirth in Indian religions.

Bhakti

This word is used to define the devotion Hindus have in their religion.

Puja

Describes the view that there is unity in any field of inquiry; it is opposed to pluralism and dualism.

Harijans

A word used to describe those who participated in the Muhammad migration.

Chapter 4 questions

Can you name each of the 3 main periods in the historical development of Hinduism?

The large Hindu community’s emergence outside India, huge numbers of untouchables convert to Christianity and Buddhism; independence of India, partition into Pakistan and India; and growth of Hindu nationals which leads to growth in Hinduism/Christian/Muslim tensions.

Can you give the dates for each

19th and 20th, 1947, late 20th and early 21st centuries respectively

Can you explain what took place in each of them that significantly shaped the modern Hinduism?

The large Hindu community’s emergence outside India, huge numbers of untouchables convert to Christianity and Buddhism; independence of India, partition into Pakistan and India; and growth of Hindu nationals which leads to growth in Hinduism/Christian/Muslim tensions

Can you identify which set of scriptures was developed in which periods and explain why that is important in the religious development of Hinduism?

Vedas are the oldest sacred books in Hinduism. There is dispute over the period when these books were written. Some believe that they were written before 2000 BC while others argue that they were written between the periods of 1500 and 400 BC. These books are important in Hinduism because they help Hindus form an understanding of the universe.

Can you explain the concept of Brahman?

The Upanishads believe that only one reality exists, and that the impersonal god- being is referred to as Brahman. They believe that anything that is considered not Brahman is not real.

Can you name the three main gods who together manifest Brahman?

Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu

Can you explain the significance of each of these three main gods and explain why they must be seen as working together?

Brahma is the creator, Shiva is the destroyer and Vishnu preserves. The three works together to bring about balance in the world

Can you explain what Samsara is?

This is a term basically used to mean wandering across. To Hindus, the force of life of a person never dies when a person die, rather it wanders across.

Can you explain why the gods are also subject to the laws of samsara

Because their spirits as well wonder across to possess other bodies or objects.

Can you name the three main paths which Hinduism teaches are ways to salvation?

Middle way which lies between the extreme forms of asceticism and worldly life, salvation based on individual efforts, and salvation through Vedas

Can you explain each of them?

Middle way which lies between the extreme forms of asceticism and worldly life, salvation based on individual efforts, and salvation through Vedas

Can you define moksha and explain how one could eventually achieve moksha on each of these paths?

Moksha is breaking away from life. One can achieve this through the middle path by getting to the place in this path, through Vedas by reading and fulfilling the scriptures, and by individual fighting towards moksha.

A philosophical system used to teach a world view that is dualistic in postclassical Hinduism.

Can you explain what yoga means and how it is connected to each path?

Can you explain what dharma is and how it is connected to each path?

This is a term used to describe duties given to a person in the traditional life of Hindus, and is based on station and caste in life; the teachings of Buddha in Buddhism.

Can you explain what moya is and how it can keep one from achieving moksha?

This is knowledge that is false. Having false knowledge can make one not obtain moksha because it prevents one from breaking away from life.

Comparative Analysis

A). can you name and explain elements which native American and African native religions have in common and which are greatly similar?

The two religions have several elements in common such as sacrifices, rite of passage and religious deities.

B). can you name and explain elements which native Americans and African native religions have in common but which they approach in different ways and explain how they are unique in each group?

Rites of passage are different in the two cases. The African religions have such rites of passage as passage to womanhood and manhood through circumcision. Native Americans approach these rites differently; they do not practice circumcision.

2. Can you compare the Apache Girl’s rite of passage and the Fulani Initiation rite, i e., the videos we watched in class in the areas of

a). symbols used in each

The Fulani community has marks, tattoos, while the apache has white dresses, pollen

b). who participates

In the apache community girls and religious leader participate while in the Fulani community girls and boys’ initiates participate together with tattooing artists

c). actions

In the Fulani community tattooing, marking of the skin, beating of boys happens while in the apache community painting face with pollen, dancing, is practiced

1. Done by individuals

Dancing, and getting blessed by elders, enduring the beating

2. Done by groups

The cooking, celebrating and celebrations, beating boys

Specifically performed by each gender

The men in the apache bless the girls while women cook and prepare for celebrations. In the Fulani community the men beat the initiates while the women watch and cheer the initiates on

D. the underlying connections to spirituality and culture

These rituals all have underlying connections to spirituality and culture through a number of symbols and actions. The spilling of blood shows connection to spirituality while the beating indicates connections to culture. In the apache initiation the covering of the girls face with pollen shows connectivity to spirits, while dancing is a connection to culture.

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Religious Studies- TRS

(Name)

(Instructors’ name)

(Course)

(Date)

Religious Studies- TRS

Chapter 2 Questions:

Totem

According to the author, a totem is a living thing or an object like an animal, bird, or plant that a certain group views with a special reference awe, and respect. It can also be said to be a symbol, an expression through material of something. It is an object of worship.

Taboo

Something that is forbidden or should not be done

Polytheism

Believe in more than one Supreme Being. The religion believes in more than one god.

Animism

This is the belief that every nature has life and is filled with spirits that are unseen that may be placated and even worshipped. Followers of this belief see self or soul- existing in stones, trees, heavenly bodies and rivers.

Shaman

A term derived from the eastern Siberia language that refers to one who is possessed by spirits of gods and can even foretell the future.

Monotheism

This describes the belief in one god. Believers’ belief is that there is only one supreme god.

Monism

Describes the view that there is unity in any field of inquiry; it is opposed to pluralism and dualism.

Polytheistic monism

Describes the view that there is unity in any field of inquiry; it is opposed to pluralism and dualism.

Rites of passage

Any kind of ritual that is used to mark the passage of an individual from one stage of life to another; for example, puberty rites, circumcision, death rituals.

Chapter 2 Questions

Can you name the elements found in common when studying Native American religion?

There are numerous elements commonly found when studying the Native American religions. They include the spirit world, animism, sacrifice, taboos, ceremonies and rituals

Can you explain each of them?

In the Native American religion it is believed that all nature is made alive by the presence of spirits. In general Native Americans are polytheistic when it comes to religion; they believe that numerous god levels exist and also in the presence of spirits in the world.

Animism is used to describe the belief in the spirits that are in existence in nature; these spirits have the power to harm or help individuals. Native American religions, therefore, view the world, stones, trees, animals and land with a different view from other religions.

Sacrifice is also important in these religions as it is used to show thanks or to please the gods.

Taboos and applying them in everyday life is the way these religions protect themselves from potential danger from the spirits. Taboos are circumstances, actions, objects or persons who because of their dangerousness fall outside the normal way of life. Ceremonies and rituals are also essential in these religions together with taboos. Native Americans usually look for ways to control the spirit forces in the world through these rituals and ceremonies. They are used for renewal of the associations between humans and spirits as well as for worship.

Can you explain some of the problems in studying Native American religion and what cautions must be exercised when making conclusions about these religions and the elements they seem to have in common (i.e., why can’t we say that all native American people have all these elements in religion?

One of the main problems when it comes to studying the Native American religions is discrimination and racism as well as modernism. Because of the past history some generalizations about these individuals must be avoided as they can be taken as elements of discrimination or racism. Some Native Americans have also modernized and adopted other religions with some elements of their cultures still present. Care should be taken not to generalize all people.

Chapter 3 Vocabulary

Ancestor veneration

This can be defined as the veneration of a member of family who has passed away. This process frequently involves care of and upkeep of graves, name memorization of people from the past, sacrifices and prayers to honor those who have passed on.

Orisha

This is used in African mythologies that are used to describe lesser deities who participated in the world’s creation.

Chapter 3 Questions

Can you name the elements found in common among African native religions?

There are a few elements related to African religions like high God, lesser spirits, ancestors, rites of passage, sacrifice, and religious leaders.

Can you explain them?

The high God in African religions is extremely essential. Hey believe that there is one Supreme Being in control of all forces. They also believe that there were lesser spirits who were involved in the creation story. Ancestors form a big part of the religion as well. They believe that the departed have power to help and control them. Rites of passage are also valued in the religion; they mark the passage of an individual from one stage of life to another. Sacrifice is used to appease gods and to ask them for more blessings or help. Religious leaders are highly respected and they are regarded as the closest connections to gods and spirits.

Can you explain some of the problems in studying African native religions and what cautions must be exercised when making conclusions about these religions and the elements they seem to have in common?

Just like in Native American religions, studying African religions can also have several problems which also have to do with discrimination, racism and modernization issues. Because of the history, studying African religions has to be done carefully so as to avoid looking discriminatory or racist. Influence from colonizers has also affected African religions and caused many to modernize. Therefore, generalizations should not be made.

Chapter 4 Vocabulary

Mohenjo- daro and Harappa

A term used to describe the religious events and rituals of Hinduism.

Aryans; monism

Aryan is a Sanskrit term that is used to mean those who are noble and it is applied to migrants who migrated from Persia to the Indus valley in BCE, the second millennium.

Brahaman

The term used by Upanishads to show and define their impersonal god who is taken as the total reality.

Atman

Souls

Maya

This is a term used to define false knowledge used by Upanishads. It describes all that which is not Brahman, all individuality, all perception.

Samsara

The term is used in Buddhism and Upanishads to describe the continuous cycle of life, death, birth and rebirth that all humans experience.

Karma

In Indian culture this word is used to mean that which connects or binds one to the continuous life cycles like rebirth and death.

Dharma

This is a term used to describe duties given to a person in the traditional life of Hindus, and is based on station and caste in life; the teachings of Buddha in Buddhism.

Brahma

A term used in the Indian society to mean one of the three significant gods in the worship of the Hindu. The god is seen as the world’s creator.

Vishnu

It is a term used in Hinduism used to describe one of the most popular deities in postclassical Hindu, called the god of love.

Shiva

This term describes the most popular god in the period of postclassical Hinduism that regarded the god of destruction and death but also of reproduction and rebirth.

Avatar

This can be used to mean the deity’s incarnation. In Hinduism, a god named Vishnu is believed to have often assumed other forms in life like human form and other types of forms.

Vedas

A collection of Aryan gods’ hymns; the entire collection of the sacred literature of Indians

Upanishads

Vedic literature philosophical material

Bhagavad gita

This is a poem in the religion and culture of Indians called the song of the blessed lord.

Krishna

This term is used to refer to the incarnation of Vishnu, who is a god in Hinduism who appears as a key contributor and participator in Bhagavad Gita.

Arjuna

This is a term used to describe a god. It is a name given to a key character in the event of Bhagavad Gita.

Trimurti

This describes the three most significant gods in Hindu; Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu.

Yoga

A philosophical system used to teach a world view that is dualistic in postclassical Hinduism.

Moksha

It describes the process of releasing individuals from the death cycle and also rebirth in Indian religions.

Bhakti

This word is used to define the devotion Hindus have in their religion.

Puja

Describes the view that there is unity in any field of inquiry; it is opposed to pluralism and dualism.

Harijans

A word used to describe those who participated in the Muhammad migration.

Chapter 4 questions

Can you name each of the 3 main periods in the historical development of Hinduism?

The large Hindu community’s emergence outside India, huge numbers of untouchables convert to Christianity and Buddhism; independence of India, partition into Pakistan and India; and growth of Hindu nationals which leads to growth in Hinduism/Christian/Muslim tensions.

Can you give the dates for each

19th and 20th, 1947, late 20th and early 21st centuries respectively

Can you explain what took place in each of them that significantly shaped the modern Hinduism?

The large Hindu community’s emergence outside India, huge numbers of untouchables convert to Christianity and Buddhism; independence of India, partition into Pakistan and India; and growth of Hindu nationals which leads to growth in Hinduism/Christian/Muslim tensions

Can you identify which set of scriptures was developed in which periods and explain why that is important in the religious development of Hinduism?

Vedas are the oldest sacred books in Hinduism. There is dispute over the period when these books were written. Some believe that they were written before 2000 BC while others argue that they were written between the periods of 1500 and 400 BC. These books are important in Hinduism because they help Hindus form an understanding of the universe.

Can you explain the concept of Brahman?

The Upanishads believe that only one reality exists, and that the impersonal god- being is referred to as Brahman. They believe that anything that is considered not Brahman is not real.

Can you name the three main gods who together manifest Brahman?

Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu

Can you explain the significance of each of these three main gods and explain why they must be seen as working together?

Brahma is the creator, Shiva is the destroyer and Vishnu preserves. The three works together to bring about balance in the world

Can you explain what Samsara is?

This is a term basically used to mean wandering across. To Hindus, the force of life of a person never dies when a person die, rather it wanders across.

Can you explain why the gods are also subject to the laws of samsara

Because their spirits as well wonder across to possess other bodies or objects.

Can you name the three main paths which Hinduism teaches are ways to salvation?

Middle way which lies between the extreme forms of asceticism and worldly life, salvation based on individual efforts, and salvation through Vedas

Can you explain each of them?

Middle way which lies between the extreme forms of asceticism and worldly life, salvation based on individual efforts, and salvation through Vedas

Can you define moksha and explain how one could eventually achieve moksha on each of these paths?

Moksha is breaking away from life. One can achieve this through the middle path by getting to the place in this path, through Vedas by reading and fulfilling the scriptures, and by individual fighting towards moksha.

A philosophical system used to teach a world view that is dualistic in postclassical Hinduism.

Can you explain what yoga means and how it is connected to each path?

Can you explain what dharma is and how it is connected to each path?

This is a term used to describe duties given to a person in the traditional life of Hindus, and is based on station and caste in life; the teachings of Buddha in Buddhism.

Can you explain what moya is and how it can keep one from achieving moksha?

This is knowledge that is false. Having false knowledge can make one not obtain moksha because it prevents one from breaking away from life.

Comparative Analysis

A). can you name and explain elements which native American and African native religions have in common and which are greatly similar?

The two religions have several elements in common such as sacrifices, rite of passage and religious deities.

B). can you name and explain elements which native Americans and African native religions have in common but which they approach in different ways and explain how they are unique in each group?

Rites of passage are different in the two cases. The African religions have such rites of passage as passage to womanhood and manhood through circumcision. Native Americans approach these rites differently; they do not practice circumcision.

2. Can you compare the Apache Girl’s rite of passage and the Fulani Initiation rite, i e., the videos we watched in class in the areas of

a). symbols used in each

The Fulani community has marks, tattoos, while the apache has white dresses, pollen

b). who participates

In the apache community girls and religious leader participate while in the Fulani community girls and boys’ initiates participate together with tattooing artists

c). actions

In the Fulani community tattooing, marking of the skin, beating of boys happens while in the apache community painting face with pollen, dancing, is practiced

1. Done by individuals

Dancing, and getting blessed by elders, enduring the beating

2. Done by groups

The cooking, celebrating and celebrations, beating boys

Specifically performed by each gender

The men in the apache bless the girls while women cook and prepare for celebrations. In the Fulani community the men beat the initiates while the women watch and cheer the initiates on

D. the underlying connections to spirituality and culture

These rituals all have underlying connections to spirituality and culture through a number of symbols and actions. The spilling of blood shows connection to spirituality while the beating indicates connections to culture. In the apache initiation the covering of the girls face with pollen shows connectivity to spirits, while dancing is a connection to culture.

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Use the following coupon
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