HIST 011 CH 3
The Atlantic slave trade took place from the 16th century to the 19th century across the Atlantic Ocean. Trade took place between Europe, America and Africa. The majority of slaves traded were Africans sourced from western and central African regions. Between 1650 and 1860, about 10 million African slaves were shipped to the West Indies, Central America, and South America (slide 1). The European slave traders bought slaves from African tribe’s men and transported them to their colonies in North and South America. Slaves mostly sold were captives of war usually from neighbouring or enemy ethnic group. In England colonies like America experienced labour shortage in their farms hence sourcing for slaves from Africa. Therefore, the domination by slaves was as a result of labor needed to work on the farms.
The Dominion of New England was formed by King James II in 1686, a union comprising different English colonies within the North American region. The plan involved the tightening of British administration in their colonies to achieve control and strength. The Dominion created a larger colony made of smaller colonies to accomplish stronger colonial defense against attacks from the Native Americans, easier collection of taxes, and the establishment of better control over the New England colonies. The Dominion of New England was, therefore, a plan by King James to reduce the increasing unrest among the colonies and to kill any elements or desires of independence through manipulative control and a stronger position in the North American territories.
The Glorious Revolution took place from 1688 to 1689 in England. The revolution transformed Britain from absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy where parliament had majority power. The event changed England’s governance giving the parliament more authority over the monarchy (slide, 2). The bill of rights was introduced and the powers of the King were better defined and limited. The bill of rights stipulated parliament rights such as right to petition the king and the right to freedom of speech. In North America, England’s colonies were freed from the strict laws after the overthrow of King James. Moreover, the bloodless revolution led to the protection of English colonies. The revolution also led to rise of other revolutions in America such as the Boston revolt.
The South Atlantic trade system was the most economic hub connecting American, African, and European colonies. The winds and ocean currents separated Atlantic Ocean into two system north and south. Slaves traded provided limited labour supply in England colonies. The trading of slaves through the trade created wealth for many individuals and companies England. It enabled movements of raw materials from Africa which were processed to finished goods and sold back allowing England traders to create wealth from profit they generated. The South Atlantic trade system also favoured British missionaries in the colonies, leading to colonists taking advantage of the position to strengthen political establishments for England.
Slave trade led to depopulation I Africa. In particular manpower was drained as slaves were able bodied people who would steer growth and development of Africa societies. African people were filled with fear and uncertainty about the future (slide 1). They feared abduction by slave traders. Slave trade led to spread of polygamy. Men and boys were the most lucrative trade prizes hence the remaining men married many wives as a way of maximizing possibilities of siring enough children to keep the society viable. In Africa development lacked. The population was very small which limited innovation and production opportunities. Additionally, slave trade led to spread of war and chaos. Demand for slaves led to creation of raids and abduction by Africa along the coast in the interior of the continent.
Enslaved Africans in North America use diverse measures to restrict enslavement. Rebellion was used as one of the ways to rebel against enslavers. Some of rebellions in America include the Stono rebellion and Nat Turners rebellion. Despite the challenge of mounting rebellion enslaved people in America raised rebellion against the white. African also resisted enslavement through freedom seekers. Freedom seekers run away to the forest or visited relatives as way of resistance. Most people freedom lasted for a short time while others managed to run away permanently. Day to day resistance actions such as sabotage and striking were used to resist enslavement.
The northern marine economy composed of the West Indies and New England economies. The British sugar empire unite the two economies. New England supplied Sugar Island with fish, bread, ships and lumber from the middle Atlantic colonies. The expansion of the Atlantic trade fuelled growth of sea ports cities and coastal towns. Continued trade also affected the interior and towns developed in places where farm products were transported through. The northern marine economy led to formation of urban society this included small group of wealthy traders formed on the top rank of seaport societies. The middle rank was formed by artisans and shopkeepers. The lower rank was formed by men, women, and children who provided labour.
Salutary neglect are the British government trade policies and regulations from the early eighteenth century concerning North American colonies. The policies and regulations were laxly enforced and loose supervision of internal colonial affairs given that the colonies remained loyal to British authorities and contributed to economic development of Britain. Salutary neglect enabled American colonies to do trading with other entities and spend money on purchasing goods produced by Britain and provide raw materials to Britain for manufacturing. During the period of salutary neglect colonial legislatures delegated power to colonial governors. Governors were given power to appoint judges, serve as colony’s military forces commander in chief and authority to coven end dismiss legislature.
Continued use of white slaves the labourers began to die due to exposure to diseases and excessive workloads. African slaves were strong and had enough energy to do farm works and be able to do farm work and other heavy job. Black African slaves were cheap and affordable compared to white labourers. After purchasing them farm owners were not required to make any payment which white slaves demanded. Rebellion from African slaves were minimal compared to those of poor English men. This was contributed by the fact that they were in a foreign nation hence limited places to run to or seek help.