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Genetic testing

Genetic testing is the kind of medical test that involves recognizing changes in chromosomes, other genes, or proteins content. The outcome of a genetic verification can differentiate or clarify on a suspected genetic circumstance, or help resolve a person’s possibility of emergent or transitory on a genetic complication problem. Genetic tests involve processes of analyzing small samples of blood and the body tissues. These tests verify whether individuals carry genes for definite inherited disorders. Genetic testing has developed immensely that doctors can regularly isolate absent or defective genes. The kind of genetic test desired to make an exact diagnosis depends on the particular disease that a doctor suspects (Feldstein, 2011). There are many diverse types of body fluids and human tissues that can be used in genetic testing. For deoxyribonucleic acid program, a very insignificant bit of blood, skin, fillet, and other tissue is desired. Many genetic tests have been established after extensive research.

Genetic testing methods include Molecular Genetic tests which involve the study of single genes of DNA content to recognize differences or mutations that generate genetic disorders. Chromosomal Genetic is another test that analyzes the chromosomes structures of an individual. These analytical changes determine the genetic changes that later develop genetic complications. Biochemical Genetic shows the quantity and motion level of proteins; abnormalities in the protein level can specify changes to the DNA and consequent in a genetic disorder (Tabarrok, 2004).

Genetic testing is deliberate as it involves remuneration restrictions and the decisions on genetic tests are critical challenges. A genetic counselor works on providing information of the test and discussing the societal and disturbing facts of genetic testing to an individual. Some of the topics highlighted by the genetic counselor include:

Newborn screening

This process is mostly conducted after birth to explain, predict, and diagnose arising genetic complications in the newborns.

Analytic testing

This test is commonly employed to verify chromosomal conditions that normally confirm the diagnosis of possible conditions based on the signs and symptoms in an individual. It is performed before birth; this is helps to make decisions on the healthcare and disorder management.

Prenatal analysis test

This is a test analysis used to categorize changes in a fetus’s genes or chromosomes before birth. It helps involved individuals to make informed decisions on the pregnancy. However, this cannot identify all the possible inherited characteristics in the baby.

Pre implantation testing

This is a specific technique that reduces the risk of child bearing with a particular genetic complication. It is used to spot genetic changes in embryos that were created using assisted reproductive methods like in-vitro fertilization.

Prognostic and pre symptomatic testing

Prognostic and pre symptomatic are used to distinguish gene mutations related with disorders that emerge after birth or develop later in an individual’s life. These tests are vital to individuals with genetic disorder, but have no indication or symptoms of the disorders during the period of research and analysis. According to Feldstein (2011), Predictive testing can categorize mutations that amplify a person’s threat of mounting disorders with a genetic source, such as positive cancer types.

Pre symptomatic test analysis can establish whether a person will build up a genetic complication, such as an iron excess disorder, prior to development of the specific signs or symptoms. The consequences of prognostic and pre symptomatic testing can offer information based on an individual’s risk of emergent in a detailed disorder and prescribe a medical care precaution measure.

Forensic testing

Forensic testing aims to establish the uses DNA protocol to discover an individual for lawful purposes. Forensic analysis is not used to identify gene mutations related with disease. This kind of testing can identify offense or tragedy victims, rule out or connect crime suspects, or create biological interaction between people.

Implications of Genetic Testing

The extended use of genetic information and testing provides clinical benefits and efficient working schemes. They again pose many economic challenges to the healthcare sectors. The major challenge of genetic testing is managing the blow of genetic testing on healthcare delivery and costs. These tests require adequate pain management for the patients since continued pain suppress the patients and result in complicated health disorders (Feldstein, 2011). Postsurgical complications that arise from insufficient pain management schemes affect the patient’s welfare since it becomes costly and incurs huge costs of medical bills.

Stakeholder perspectives

In a bid to curb and work on the strategies of affordable genetic testing program, a sample of stakeholders’ perspective has to be a basis point of view on the medical healthcare.

These are:

Genetic testing is used as a principle for predicting future diseases. A BRCA1/2 mutation is a case study; this is a breast and ovarian cancer based research. Approximations of 5% to 10% of breast cancers have an inherited factor and that approximately 60% to 80% of women with BRCA mutations may result in breast cancer. BRCA testing is relatively expensive and the primary accessible interventions require (prophylactic removal of the breasts or ovaries). These are clear indication that most people would opt for these surgeries but cannot afford.

Genetic testing for the intention of prescribing drug treatment based on genetic disparity of diseases like inherent mutations in tumors. The testing for deduction of HER2/neu oncogenes, which are genetic alterations in exact cell types determine diagnosis and the impending response to drug therapy. Many recommendations look impractical to proper care practice. Nurses operational with hospitalized patients that are on extreme pain having to establish appropriate basics of evaluation for the present clinical situation. Pain assessment schemes should be approached on a regular basis. The evaluation parameters should be clearly aimed at by hospital or unit policies and actions.

Genetic testing and associated pain management costs can be reviewed and a cheaper effective approach be directed. This will change the state of medical affairs for the nation and provide an efficient medical healthcare scheme. These plans involve proper governmental regulation of medical bills involving accurate measures of costs for the medical cover policies. The directives involve patients and their medical conditions, departmental units, operational procedures and the availed services in regard to the total cost. Major medical institutions should amend medical policies that are provisional to specific health conditions and direct affordable medication rates to pharmaceutical institutions in favor of the living standards of ordinary citizens. Accurate cost evaluation policies and value measurement practices will deliver transformative impacts to the ordinary levels of medical assessment policies.

Implementation of the medical review process is a responsibility binding the medical institutions, governing medical policy makers and welfare associations that precede the protocol of service. Without proper medical bill amendment, complicated disorders could threaten the health of individuals with low incomes and families that cannot afford the required medical attention. These problems associated with genetic testing should not be the case on a progressing nation.


Feldstein, J. (2011). Health Care Economics. Cengage Learning. New York.

Feldstein, J. (2011). Health Policy Issues: An Economic Perspective. Health Administration Press.

Tabarrok, A. (2004 reprint edition). Genetic testing: An economic and contractarian analysis. Journal of Health Economics. Elsevier B.V. Michigan.

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