Different Research Methodologies And Purpose Of Control Group

Different Research Methodologies And Purpose Of Control Group

Index

Index………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1

TAQ 1 A: Identify, explain and use at least two different research methods…………..2

TAQ1 B: Evaluate the appropriate use for the different research methodologies…….4

TAQ 2 A: Aim of the study…………………………………………………………………..5

TAQ2 B: Suitable hypothesis for the study………………………………………………..5

TAQ2 C: State whether the above hypothesis is directional or non directional………5

TAQ2 D: Which group acted as a control group and what is the purpose of the control group………………………………………………………………………………………….5

TAQ2 E: What was the IV…………………………………………………………………..6

TAQ3 A: Advantages and disadvantages of repeated measures design and independent groups design………………………………………………………………..6

TAQ3 B: Advantages and disadvantages of observations and experiments…………8

TAQ 1 A: Identify, explain and use at least two different research methods from the list

RESEARCH METHOD Explanation

Example When research method could be used (with example and reason for choice) Limitations of the research method (how and why it could be less effective), with explanation based on example

Observation It is a basic method of getting information through careful watching of things and trying to understand them in depth (Panneerselvam, 2004).

An example is observing animals and people in their habitat without interviewing the respondents (Kothari, 2004). One way it could be used is in the case study of individual interaction and how they relate with each other (Kothari, 2004).

This is the case when ethnologists specialize in the study of animals and their natural environment. Observation brings about issues of bias. A researcher studying animals may come up with results that may be wrongfully interpreted (Panneerselvam, 2004).

Field experiment Subject study in the real world whereby the investigator intervenes in collection of data, focusing their attention towards specific behavior rather than being general and interacting with the subject during data collection (Goddard and Melville, 2004). Could be very useful when carrying out social surveys (Kothari, 2004).

One such example is the study of an area with respect to certain conditions such as survey of schools in an area. There is less variable control; the experimenter has limited control of the environment thus varies affect the outcome. The cause and effect relationship becomes hard to establish in the process (Panneerselvam, 2004).

Interview Form of communication where one person asks questions, which are answered by the recipient interviewee (Kothari, 2004).

They take many forms like structured interviews and informal (Goddard and Melville, 2004). Useful when finding out information about an individual’s history from close acquaintances (Goddard and Melville, 2004).

An example is determining the childhood of a prominent personality. When faced with an interviewer, honesty is the last thing one thinks of especially in informal interviews (Kothari, 2004). As such, it tends to discredit the interviewer’s final report.

Bias information may be given to conceal a hidden truth that happened a long time ago.

Questionnaire This is a list of questions written and helps one to gather a lot of relevant information cheaply and relatively quick (Panneerselvam, 2004). They don’t take time to fill and participants understand the questions.

One instance filling out a questionnaire concerned with the environmental degradation of a particular region.

This particular concern could help an interviewer cover large areas of study with ease and save time and money (Kothari, 2004). Since it covers a general population and a lot of people tested quickly, most people tell fibs. This may be an issue as lie questions may also be included for example in Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (Panneerselvam, 2004).

Laboratory experiment Experiments carried out in a controlled environment, which is special and tightly enclosed (Kothari, 2004).

Examples include determining dependent and independent variable as the effect and cause effect respectively.

A good example of controlled experiments in a laboratory includes studies on the human memory. This ensures that the cause and effect relationship takes place. The controlled environment ensures that one is able to discover faster and effective reactions (Goddard and Melville, 2004). Artificial experiments may not give conclusive results on how individual memories would behave in real life situations (Kothari, 2004). They provide a platform for lack of ecological validity.

(Word Count 500)

TAQ1 B: Evaluate the appropriate use for the different research methodologies.

Observation is critical when it comes to the innovation and improvement of new services and products. It should be used when looking to develop new ideas and making changes that are related to human beings. Observation is a holistic approach and should be used when creating new ideas by the relevant departments.

Field experiments are very important when it comes to examining the naturally occurring environments and worldwide interventions. Economists use field experiments to analyze and interpret information obtained from healthcare programs, education, and environment degradation and have used the information to measure the effectiveness of eradicating issues that arise from such problems.

Interviews allow one gather qualitative data that is open ended and covers a wide range. They are vital to any project investigation as they provide rich qualitative data about end users, key stakeholders and individual projects. Interviews are useful since they provide information about personal feelings, motivations, and attitudes.

Questionnaires are most commonly used as they are less costly and provide a quantitative data gathering method whereby the information and evidence obtained is expressed in terms of numerals. Depending on the distribution method and lack of bias information, questionnaires can be done swiftly with data analysis starting right away.

Lab experiments are useful in establishing a cause and effect as it involves the direct manipulation of one variable and at the same time trying to make the other variable constant. This is the case since experimental methods vary from the non experimental methods and as such laboratory experiments can become duplicated.

(Word Count 254)

TAQ 2 A: Aim of the study

To determine the dependent and independent variable among the experimental information provided.

TAQ2 B: Suitable hypothesis for the study

The most suitable hypothesis testing would be the experimental hypothesis.

TAQ2 C: State whether the above hypothesis is directional or non directional.

The experimental hypothesis chosen above is a non directional hypothesis.

TAQ2 D: Which group acted as a control group and what is the purpose of the control group.

Mr. Whitebeard’s class’ used as a baseline for comparing both results in the experiment.

TAQ2 E: What was the IV

Mrs. Mullet’s class as there was significant difference between the conditions provided by Mrs. Mullet’s class and Mr. Whitebeard’s class, with a change in performance in Mrs. Mullet’s class performance.

(Word Count 76)

TAQ3 A: Advantages and disadvantages of repeated measures design and independent groups design

Repeated Measures Design Independent Groups Design

Advantages Advantages

Can be used to get rid of subject variables

There is equal variation. Since it involves manipulation of the independent variable in order to observe the dependent variable, it becomes easier to monitor the effect and cause relationship of a variable.

It only needs a relatively small number of subjects due to the fact that it uses fewer subjects. This is because data for all conditions are derived from the same group of participants (Howit & Cramer, 2011)

There is great control over irrelevant variable as compared to other research methods.

Gets rid of bias based on subject

Also gets rid of bias based on order effects that result from the different participants used under each condition. The aim of this research design is less expected to become clear to the participants since both conditions are run simultaneously (Howit & Cramer, 2011)

Can use on material content within a short period and repeatedly

Disadvantage Disadvantage

There is a small range of potential uses as compared to other research designs. It is not possible to simply use two different reading schemes for teaching young children within the same group of younger children.

Order effects that are brought about by participants are in each condition and are unavoidable. The order effects occur when people behave differently because of the order of conditions given. This can become minimized through the use of counter-balancing, which consists of some contributors doing the conditions in a uniform order while others doing the same conditions in a different order so as to randomize the order effects.

It creates a sense of boredom. One gets tired doing one task and later on redoing the similar task the same way thus becoming easily fed up. Can lead to problems relating to validity, like maturation, which can become evident in terms of the effects of treatment for example. Here the participant gets used to the idea of being tested and in other instances, one group of participants talks to another group of participants about the experiment underway.

The other disadvantage is the fact that this research design suffers greatly from individual differences. Two people cannot be the same at any one instance, some people may find the tasks in the experiment quite difficult while others may find the tasks rather simple and easy to complete. An example is when conducting a memory task; an Individual with sharp memory will find it easy in figuring out what the researcher is testing while someone with poor memory would end up struggling a lot in the end demand for characteristics becomes inevitable.

There is need for more subjects

Subjective variables such as age are not easily controlled.

TAQ3 B: Advantages and disadvantages of observations and experiments

Observations Experiments

Advantages Advantages

It is the best and direct method of data collection and information and is suitable for studying of human behavior

Observation improves precision of results obtained from the research.

The data collected is accurate in its own nature and also very reliable.

It is less demanding in nature and this makes it less bias when it comes to working abilities.

Observations can be made continuous by the use of modern technology thus can be used for a larger duration of time (Kothari, 2004).

By using observation, the researcher can be able to make an in-depth analysis of the problems that have been identified.

There is a decrease of problems of depending on the respondent.

Observation serves as an important tool in understanding the verbal response positively and more efficiently (Panneerselvam, 2004). Provide a platform for determining the cause and effect of a variable. This is because experiments involve calculated manipulation of one variable and maintaining the other variable constant (Goddard and Melville, 2004).

Experiments allow there to be precise control of variables. Control enables the experimenter be able to isolate the independent variable so as to observe its effect on the dependent variable with control being intended for allowing individuals to come up with a concrete conclusion based on the two variables (Kothari, 2004).

Experiments produce sufficient quantitative data having numerical data. This data can become analyzed using inferential arithmetic tests and the tests can be able to produce reliable statements on how the events occurred through chance (Panneerselvam, 2004).

Duplication of experiments can be done easily therefore generalization of data from a single experiment becomes impossible (Panneerselvam, 2004). The more an experiment is replicated, and having the same results being retrieved, then the higher the probability that the theory that is tested is valid.

Disadvantages Disadvantages

Issues relating to the past cannot be studied through observation.

Attitudes and opinions cannot be studied through observing. Also sampling cannot become effective here.

An individual is only limited to the available documents.

Controlled observations require special equipments so as to work effectively and such equipments tend to be very costly.

Observation alone cannot be able to provide complete answers to problems and issues that need to be addressed.

They involve a lot of time because the researcher has to wait for such an event to take place then be able to study the particular event (Kothari, 2004).

The other greater disadvantage is the fact that it is unknown for the event to occur in relation to the actual presence of the researcher being present. Due to lack of adequate control, it becomes impossible to decide whether change in the dependent variable is as a result of the independent variable (Goddard Melville, 2004).

Experiments are not examples of real life situations since they are carried out in controlled environments thus producing distorted information and behavior.

Experiments cannot control every variable, there are other variable, which the experimenter is not aware of and they are at work. Bearing this in mind, it becomes impossible to control all variables, for example it is impossible to control completely the mental world of individuals that are taking part in the stud.

(Word Count 1001)

Bibliography

Goddard, W. & Melville, S. 2004. Research Methodology: An Introduction. Claremont, SA: Juta and Company Ltd.

Howitt, D., & Cramer, D. 2011. Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology. (3rded.). Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Ltd.

Kothari, C., R. 2004. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International.

Panneerselvam, R. 2004. Research Methodology. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

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