One page per question, 12 point font- TIMES NEW ROMAN, double spaced, APA format , plus reference page. TEXT BOOK ” PERSONALITY THEORY AND RESEARCH, 14TH EDITION (DANIEL CERVONE AND LAWRENCE PERVIN)

Question 1.  Consider the Research of Zhu, Ziang, Fan, and Han in the text on Cross Cultural Differences in Brain Activation when considering the self.  What does it mean to have a self-concept that is fused with representation of others?    What does it mean to have a self-concept that is not fused with representation of others?  What might the behavioral interventions be?  Suggested Topic Heading:  Self-Concept and Cross-Cultural Differences

Question 2.  Some psychologist have suggested that while individuals tend to use traits to describe themselves and others, this merely tells us something about the cognitive functioning of individuals and their interpersonal perceptions–it does not tell us that traits represent the best tools for the scientific analysis of personality.  How important is the fact that the layperson finds the trait a useful construct?  If we accept the importance of the layperson’s use of this construct for theory development, does this also commit us to accepting the specific trait names and categorizations used by the layperson (e.g., honest, aggressive, sympathetic)?  Suggested Topic Heading:  Trait Constructs

Question 3:  Big five terms are great for describing differences between people.  But are they also good for explaining people’s behavior?  Is it reasonable to say that “Liz smiled and greeted people happily because she is an extravert”?  Or is that similar to saying to saying “it is sunny and warm in San Diego this week because San Diego has nice weather”?  In other words, is this sort of “explanation” one that just takes you around in circles?   Suggested Topic Heading:  The Five-Factor Model

Question 4:  The text discusses research on brain systems involved in higher level psychological functions, such as self-concept.  How much do we learn about such psychological functions by studying the brain?  In other words, since we know that some systems in the brain have to be involved in any psychological function, does an analysis of underlying neuroanatomy answer the most pressing questions about personality?  Or does it leave unanswered critical questions about the ways in which these psychological capacities develop and function in the social world?  In short:  Can there be a neuroscience of personality?  Suggested Topic Heading:  The Brain and Psychological Functions


Question 5:  Skinner suggests that since environment control is ever-present, we should learn to make maximum use of these environmental influences.  He also suggests that concern with internal variables, such as emotion and motivation, as explanations of behavior has led psychologists astray.  Do you think this approach would lead to a more scientific psychology?  Or might it might instead create a psychology that fails to develop a science of important aspects of human experience?  Suggested Topic Heading:  Skinner and Environmental Influences

Question 6:  In considering Kelly’s constructive alternatives, does it seem odd to read about a theorist who holds little stock in idea that there is an objective reality or absolute truth to discover?  Can we conduct a science of persons if there is no objective reality or truth to discover?  How might Kelly’s constructive alternatives foster an even more truthful scientific investigation of persons than other theorists?  Suggested Topic Heading:  Kelly’s Constructive Alternativism

Question 7:  B.F. Skinner questioned people’s capacity for free will and self control.  In what ways does social cognitive theory, and its associated programs of research, provide a counter-argument to Skinner’s position?  How does a focus on expectancies differentiate  social-cognitive theory from behaviorism?  How does this shift enable social-cognitive theorists to explain why two people react different to the same environment?  Suggested Topic Heading: Skinner vs Social Cognitive Theory

Question 8:  People seem to differ in their “moods.”  Some people are commonly upbeat and “lively.”  Others seem lower I energy.  Some people seem commonly to be depressed.  How does social cognitive theory explain these individual differences? Or does it?  Might this be a limitation to the social -cognitive approach?  What are your thoughts about problem-focused and emotion-focused coping?  Suggested Topic Heading:  Social Cognitive Theory, Problem Focused and Emotion-Focused Coping




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