Institution of Affiliation
Article Title: Cortical and Subcortical Contributions to Stop Signal Response Inhibition: Role of the Subthalamic Nucleus.
Aron and Poldrack wrote the research article in the year 2006. The article revolves around the function of the subthalamic nucleus in stopping signal response inhibition through the aid of the cortical and subcortical contributions. The suppression of an existing response that has been initiated manually depends on the right part of the inferior frontal cortex. However, it is not clear on how the suppression function is carried out in the motor system. Suggestions that the subthalamic nucleus plays a crucial role in suppressing the response due to its placement, suppressing the direct frontal-striatal pathway which tends to be activated by the response initiation.
To investigate the subthalamic nucleus role, the researchers conducted two experiments in which they investigated the proposition with active magnetic resonance imaging along with the Stop-signal task. The subjects in these experiments made responses to the Go signals and as well attempted the inhibition of the triggered response to the intermittent Stop-signals. In the first experiment, the Going activated pallidal, striatal, frontal, and motor cortical regions that are in line with the straight pathway while at the same time stopping the activated right inferior frontal cortex (IFN) as well as the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Also, stopping the related activation was higher for the fast inhibitors compared to the ones that were slow in both IFN and STN. There was a correlation across subjects in the activity in both IFN and STN regions.
In the second experiment, a high resolution functional and structural imaging was used to confirm the location of inhibiting the activation within the proximity of the subthalamic nucleus. The researchers proposed that the subthalamic nucleus’ role was to inhibit the thalamocortical output, thus hindering the execution of the Go response. The results of the experiments yield convergent data for the subthalamic nucleus’ role in stopping the inhibition of the signal response. The results also suggested that the rate of the Go and Stop processes had a probability of relating to the relative activation of the various neuralogical pathways. There is a need for future research in order to establish whether the inhibition of the Stop-signal could be executed through a direct working neuroanatomic forecast between the IFN and STN which is a hyper-direct pathway.
The research had various concerns regarding the restraints of neuroimaging as the activations alone are unable to prove that a specific brain area is adequate for a specific cognitive function. Besides, the understanding of the activations also has been restrained by the comparatively poor spatial resolution of the FMRI. However, the relatively spatial resolution in the first experiment was solved in the second experiment as the researchers used a high-resolution scanning. Another limitation of the article is that despite in the second experiment use of the high-resolution scanning the hypointense area on the T2-weighted structural scans did include two immediate areas that consisted high iron content that is the red nucleus and the substantia nigra. Due to this, it was impossible to ascertain that the activations were specific to the subthalamic nucleus rather than to the substantia nigra and the red nucleus. Despite the limitations in confidence that the activations of the inferior frontal cortex, subthalamic nucleus, pre-SMA and the GP are particularly related to hindrances, the research has some strengths in that there is a strong and convergent proof from lesion, TMS and the deep-brain activation studies that implicate the inferior frontal cortex and the subthalamic nucleus in the Stop-signal response suppression.
The article is essential as it helps us in understanding how the brain works especially with the hypothesis whether the Stop-signal response suppression operates by the activation of the STN in order to suppress the Go response. The results of the experiment provide new information that is important in regard to the functional neuroanatomy of cognitive control through the verification of the significance of the subthalamic nucleus for Stop-signal response suppression as well as the suggestions that the Go and Stop processes might associate with the activation of various frontal/basal ganglia regions. Based on the results of the study, evidence that implicates the subthalamic nucleus with Parkinson’s disease has been found with patients suffering from the disease showing abnormalities in firing subthalamic nucleus tend to have SSRT deficits and thus tend to benefit from the stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. Besides, patients also experience a faster SSRT in the event when their stimulus are on compared with off. Therefore, the research is significant not only to the researchers on Parkinson’s disease but also to the patients as they witness higher subthalamic nucleus firing.
The research is also significant in that it helps in understanding the various neurophysiological facts which have the probability of transcending the difference in effectors and this makes the study of crucial importance to neurologists. Some of the facts outlined in the study are that it shows the equilibrium between the gaze-shifting and gaze-holding neurons in the frontal eye field dictates the production of a saccade. Besides, the studies show that some of the neurons within the frontal eye field enact inhibition before the SSRT while others don’t. The frontal eye field possesses neurons which are responsible for the control of movement while the medial frontal regions exhibit executive monitoring signals but do not possess neurons that control movement initiation.
The paper is impactful because it touches on various topics that are relevant in the contemporary medicine. The treatment of Parkinson’s disease is one of the fields that has been greatly studied, and this makes the paper of great significance. Besides Parkinson’s disease, neurons have also been studied in the experiments, and this helps in imparting knowledge on how neurons work, and due to this, I have a positive attitude that the research will have a positive impact in the field of medicine and psychology as they are the common problems faced in the modern world. The research also has increased my knowledge in regards to the work of the subthalamic nucleus and its relation to Parkinson’s disease as well as have an understanding of the neuron activity and differences.
Aron, A. R., & Poldrack, R. A. (2006). Cortical and subcortical contributions to stop signal response inhibition: role of the subthalamic nucleus. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(9), 2424-2433.